- Nicholas Of Hereford
▪ English scholardied c. 1420, , Coventry, Warwickshire, Eng.theological scholar and advocate of the English reform movement within the Roman Church who later recanted his unorthodox views and participated in the repression of other reformers. He collaborated with John Wycliffe (Wycliffe, John) on the first complete English translation of the Bible.Nicholas was ordained in 1370 and later received a doctorate in theology (1382) from Oxford. While at Oxford he was influenced by Wycliffe, founder of an evangelical Christian group called Lollards (Lollard). Developing the reform theology of Lollardism further through his own preaching, Nicholas denounced clerical luxury and affirmed the right of every Christian to establish his personal belief through meditation on the Scriptures. He and Wycliffe, along with other Lollards, were condemned for their views and called to appear before the Archbishop of Canterbury's court in 1382; when they refused to appear, they were excommunicated.Nicholas immediately appealed his case to Pope Urban VI and went to Rome to plead, but he was again condemned and was sentenced to imprisonment for life. He escaped during a popular uprising against the Pope in June 1385 but was jailed by the Archbishop of Canterbury on his return to England. He was subjected to harsh treatment at Saltwood Castle, Kent (1388–89), and his writings were seized by order of King Richard II. By 1391 he recanted his beliefs, was granted royal protection, and was appointed theological inquisitor of suspected heretics. Chroniclers of the time report that he vigorously disputed his former Lollard colleagues. He was appointed chancellor of Hereford Cathedral (1391), and in 1395 he became chancellor of St. Paul's, London. From 1397 to 1417 he was treasurer at Hereford; shortly before his death he resigned the post and entered a Carthusian monastery.The most important of Nicholas' literary works—and the only one extant—is the Wycliffe Bible. Nicholas is believed to have been entrusted with the translation of the Old Testament, the major part of which was completed by 1382. His other writings were destroyed by Richard II during Nicholas' captivity at Saltwood Castle, although documents of the period preserve his Confession of 1382 and other public statements of his beliefs.
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