▪ work by Nagarjuna(Sanskrit: “Fundamentals of the Middle Way”), Buddhist text by Nāgārjuna (Nagarjuna), the exponent of the Mādhyamika (Middle Way) school of Mahāyāna Buddhism. It is a work that combines stringent logic and religious vision in a lucid presentation of the doctrine of ultimate “emptiness.”Nāgārjuna, who was apparently a southern Indian Brahman, makes use of the classifications and analyses of the Theravāda Abhidhamma, or scholastic, literature; he takes them to their logical extremes and thus reduces to ontological nothingness the various elements, states, and faculties dealt with in Abhidhamma texts. Nāgārjuna's basic philosophy, on the other hand, comes out of the Prajñāpāramitā (“Perfection of Wisdom”) tradition, and the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā systematically sets forth the vision of the void that informs the Prajñāpāramitā-sūtras. In some 450 verses, the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā develops the doctrine that nothing, not even the Buddha or Nirvāṇa, is real in itself. It ends by commending to spiritual realization the ultimate identity of the transitory phenomenal world and Nirvāṇa itself.
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