- Monsoon Current
also called Monsoon Driftsurface current of the northern Indian Ocean. Unlike the Atlantic and Pacific, both of which have strong currents circulating clockwise north of the Equator, the northern Indian Ocean has surface currents that change with the seasonal monsoon. During the northeast monsoon (November–March), the Indian North Equatorial Current (or Northeast Monsoon Drift) flows southwest and west, crossing the Equator. Between this westerly current and the westerly current maintained south of the Equator by the southeast trade winds, a strong equatorial countercurrent flows east at about latitude 10° S. The southwest monsoon sets in from April to October. Joining with the southeast trades, which at this time cross the Equator and veer to the southwest, it reverses the flow of the current, pushing the Southwest Monsoon Drift eastward and sending branches north into the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, as a major western boundary current with surface current velocities as high as 9 miles (14 km) per hour. The movement of the Indian South Equatorial Current is particularly strong off the Somali coast and southeastern Arabia, where upwelling lowers the surface temperature of the water near shore. The Equatorial Countercurrent is not in evidence at that time of year.
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