- Meredith, James
▪ American civil rights activist and authorborn June 25, 1933, Kosciusko, Mississippi, U.S.American civil rights activist who gained national renown at a key juncture in the civil rights movement in 1962, when he became the first African American student at the University of Mississippi (Mississippi, University of). State officials, initially refusing a U.S. Supreme Court order to integrate the school, blocked Meredith's entrance, but, following large campus riots that left two people dead, Meredith was admitted to the university under the protection of federal marshals.Meredith served in the U.S. Air Force (1951–60) before attending an all-black school, Jackson State College (1960–62). His repeated applications to the University of Mississippi were denied solely on the basis of his race, according to the verdict of his 1961–62 court battle, which was won on appeal with the legal assistance of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In the fall of 1962, as mob violence seemed imminent, U.S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy (Kennedy, Robert F.) called in federal protection so that Meredith could register for classes. Meredith's tenure at Mississippi was brief; he graduated in 1963 and wrote a memoir about the experience, called Three Years in Mississippi (1966).Meredith continued to balance education and activism throughout the rest of the decade, attending the University of Ibadan in Nigeria (1964–65) and Columbia University (1966–68). In June 1966 he began a solitary protest march, which he called the March Against Fear, from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi, when he was shot by a sniper. The crime mobilized many civil rights leaders to resume the march, which Meredith was able to rejoin after a period of hospitalization.
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