McMillan, Edwin Mattison

McMillan, Edwin Mattison

▪ American physicist
born Sept. 18, 1907, Redondo Beach, Calif., U.S.
died Sept. 7, 1991, El Cerrito, Calif.

      American nuclear physicist who shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1951 with Glenn T. Seaborg (Seaborg, Glenn T.) for his discovery of element 93, neptunium, the first element heavier than uranium, thus called a transuranium element.

      McMillan was educated at the California Institute of Technology and at Princeton University, where he earned a Ph.D. in 1932. He then joined the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, and became a full professor in 1946 and director of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in 1958. He retired in 1973.

      While studying nuclear fission, McMillan discovered neptunium, a decay product of uranium-239. In 1940, in collaboration with Philip H. Abelson, he isolated the new element and obtained final proof of his discovery. Neptunium was the first of a host of transuranium elements that provide important nuclear fuels and contributed greatly to the knowledge of chemistry and nuclear theory. During World War II McMillan also did research on radar and sonar and worked on the first atomic bomb. He served as a member of the General Advisory Committee to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission from 1954 to 1958.

      McMillan also made a major advance in the development of Ernest Lawrence's cyclotron, which in the early 1940s had run up against its theoretical limit. Accelerated in an ever-widening spiral by synchronized electrical pulses, atomic particles in a cyclotron are unable to attain a velocity beyond a certain point, as a relativistic mass increase tends to put them out of step with the pulses. In 1945, independently of the Russian physicist Vladimir I. Veksler, McMillan found a way of maintaining synchronization for indefinite speeds. He coined the name synchrocyclotron for accelerators using this principle. McMillan was chairman of the National Academy of Sciences from 1968 to 1971.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • McMillan,Edwin Mattison — Mc·Mil·lan (mĭk mĭlʹən), Edwin Mattison. 1907 1991. American physicist and chemist. He shared a 1951 Nobel Prize for the discovery of neptunium (1940). * * * …   Universalium

  • McMillan , Edwin Mattison — (1907–1991) American physicist Born in Redonda Beach, California, McMillan was educated at the California Institute of Technology and at Princeton, where he obtained his PhD in 1932. He took up an appointment at the University of California at… …   Scientists

  • McMillan, Edwin Mattison — ► (1907 91) Físico estadounidense. Fue premio Nobel de Química en 1951, compartido con Seaborg, por sus trabajos sobre elementos transuránicos y el descubrimiento del plutonio y el neptunio …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Edwin Mattison McMillan — Edwin McMillan Pour les articles homonymes, voir McMillan. Edwin Mattison McMillan (18 septembre 1907 – 7 septembre 1991) fut le premier scientifique à obtenir un élément transuranien. Il est né à Redondo Beach en Californie.… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Edwin Mattison McMillan — (* 18. September 1907 in Redondo Beach, Kalifornien; † 7. September 1991 in El Cerrito, Kalifornien) war ein US amerikanischer Physiker. 1951 wurde ihm zusammen mit Glenn Theodore Seaborg der Nobelpreis für Chemie verliehen. Leben McMillan, der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Edwin Mattison McMillan — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Edwin Mattison McMillan (Redondo Beach, EUA 1907 El Cerrito 1991) fue un químico y profesor universitario estadounidense galardonado con el Premio Nobel de Química del año 1951. Biografía Nació el 18 de septiembre de …   Wikipedia Español

  • McMillan — Edwin Mattison …   Scientists

  • McMillan — McMillan, Edwin Mattison …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Chemienobelpreis 1951: Edwin Mattison McMillan — Glenn Theodore Seaborg —   Die beiden Amerikaner erhielten den Nobelpreis für ihre Entdeckungen in der Chemie der Transurane.    Biografien   Edwin Mattison McMillan, * Redondo Beach (Kalifornien) 18. 9. 1907, ✝ El Cerrito (Kalifornien) 7. 9. 1991; ab 1936 Professor in …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Edwin McMillan — Edwin Mattison McMillan (* 18. September 1907 in Redondo Beach, Kalifornien; † 7. September 1991 in El Cerrito, Kalifornien) war ein amerikanischer Physiker. Er war der erste Wissenschaftler der ein Transuranelement künstlich herstellte, und zwar …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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