- Massenet, Jules
▪ French composerborn , May 12, 1842, Montaud, near Saint-Étienne, Francedied Aug. 13, 1912, Parisleading French opera composer of his generation, whose music is admired for its lyricism, sensuality, occasional sentimentality, and theatrical aptness.The son of an ironmaster, Massenet entered the Paris Conservatory at the age of 11, subsequently studying composition under the noted opera composer Ambroise Thomas. In 1863 he won the Prix de Rome with his cantata David Rizzio. With the production in 1867 of his opera La Grand' Tante (The Great Aunt), he embarked on a career as a composer of operas and incidental music. His 24 operas are characterized by a graceful, thoroughly French, melodic style. Manon (1884; after Antoine François Prévost) is considered by many his masterpiece. The opera, marked by sensuous melody and skilled personification, uses leading themes and motifs to identify and characterize the protagonists and their emotions. In the recitatives (dialogue) it employs the unusual device of spoken words over a light orchestral accompaniment. Also among his finest and most successful operas are Le Jongleur de Notre-Dame (1902), Werther (1892; after J.W. von Goethe), and Thaïs (1894). The famous “Méditation” for violin and orchestra from Thaïs remains part of the standard violin repertory.Several of Massenet's operas reflect the succession of contemporary operatic fashions. Thus, Le Cid (1885) has the characteristics of French grand opera; Le Roi de Lahore (1877; The King of Lahore) reflects the taste for Oriental exoticism; Esclarmonde (1889) shows the influence of Wagner; and La Navarraise (1894; The Woman of Navarre) is influenced by the end-of-the-century style of verismo, or realism. Also prominent among Massenet's operas are Hérodiade (1881) and Don Quichotte (1910).Of Massenet's incidental music, particularly notable is that for Leconte de Lisle's play Les Érinnyes (1873; The Furies), which contains the widely performed song “Élégie.” In 1873 he also produced his oratorio, Marie-Magdeleine, later performed as an opera. This work exemplifies the mingling of religious feeling and eroticism often found in Massenet's music. Massenet also composed more than 200 songs, a piano concerto, and several orchestral suites.As a teacher of composition at the Paris Conservatory from 1878, Massenet was highly influential. His autobiography was entitled Mes Souvenirs (1912; My Recollections).
* * *