- Manship, Paul
▪ American sculptorborn December 25, 1885, St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.died January 31, 1966, New York, New YorkAmerican sculptor whose subjects and modern, generalized style were largely inspired by classical sculpture. He is particularly well known for his large public commissions.Trained in the United States, Manship received a scholarship in 1909 to study at the American Academy in Rome. He traveled extensively during these years through Italy and Greece and discovered a deep appreciation for archaic Greek statues and for Assyrian, Egyptian, and Minoan art. These ancient sources would influence his work for the remainder of his career. After three years abroad he settled in New York City and developed a style that rejected the Beaux-Arts naturalism that was then fashionable.Manship's arresting, linear compositions—distinctive for their simplified modeling and rhythmical patterns—made an immediate impact within the sculpture community in New York. He exhibited widely and received numerous commissions for his early compositions, including the popular Indian and Pronghorn Antelope (1914). Among his other large, decorative works—mostly in bronze—are Dancer and Gazelles (1916), of which there are versions in several museums, and the Prometheus Fountain (1934) in Rockefeller Center Plaza in New York. He executed many portraits in marble; most striking are Pauline Frances—Three Weeks Old (1914) and John D. Rockefeller (1918). Manship's depictions of animals remain popular; particularly famous is the Paul J. Rainey Memorial Gateway (1934) at the Bronx Zoo in New York.Additional ReadingHarry Rand, Paul Manship (1989); Susan Rather, Archaism, Modernism, and the Art of Paul Manship (1993).
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