Wade-Giles romanization  Ching-chou , formerly  Shashi 

      city and river port, southern Hubei (Hupeh) sheng (province), south-central China. It is located on the north bank of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) near Lake Chang. The city was established in 1994 by combining what was then the city of Shashi with Jiangling county and the former Jingzhou prefecture; the name was changed to Jingzhou in 1996.

      Shashi had been a communications centre from an early date, with routes leading north to Xiangfan, east to Wuhan, and west to Yichang. It was an important port in the state of Chu from the 6th century BCE onward and was known as Jiangjin at the time. Historically, the town of Shashi was part of Jiangling county and at one time was also the county seat. By the end of the Tang dynasty (618–907), the area had become a thriving tea market.

      Shashi grew in importance in the 1850s and '60s, when occupation of many of the lower Yangtze ports by rebels during the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64) brought it new prosperity. When Shashi was opened to foreign trade in 1896, it began to flourish as a commercial centre and transshipment port and subsequently outstripped the neighbouring town of Jingzhou, which had suffered serious damage during the 1911 revolution. With excellent waterway communications in Hubei, it also drew trade from much of northern Hunan province west of Dongting Lake, as well as from eastern Sichuan province, and it exported quantities of cotton, grain, beans, and oilseeds.

      The area had always been the centre of a handicraft-textile industry, which was developed in the 18th century on a large scale during the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12), with Jiangling satins being especially famous. In the early years of the 20th century, a large cotton-weaving and spinning factory was set up in Shashi. Since 1949 this industry has been expanded on a considerable scale. The city also produces large quantities of cotton yarn and finished textiles, which supply the local needs of the province and are also shipped elsewhere. Other products include machinery, automobile parts, chemicals, processed foods, and building materials. In addition to Jingzhou's important river port along the Yangtze, expressways and a bridge across the Yangtze provide the city with easy access to Hubei's other major cities. A branch rail line connects the city to the truck railway north at Jingmen. The local airport has domestic flights to several major cities. Pop. (2002 est.) 619,170; (2007 est.) urban agglom., 956,000.

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Universalium. 2010.

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