- Ivanov, Lev
▪ Russian dancerborn Feb. 18 [Feb. 6, old style], 1834, Moscowdied Dec. 24 [Dec. 11, O.S.], 1901, St. Petersburg, RussiaRussian ballet dancer who was choreographic assistant to Marius Petipa (Petipa, Marius), the director and chief choreographer of the Imperial Russian Ballet.Ivanov joined the Imperial Ballet in St. Petersburg after graduating (1852) from its school. He specialized in character roles and was promoted to premier danseur (1869); regisseur, or stage manager (1882); and assistant ballet master (1885). He staged nearly 20 new or revived works for the Imperial Ballet but received little recognition during his lifetime because the name of Petipa was always placed first on the program. Nonetheless, Ivanov became recognized as an important and innovative choreographer, for he was among the first of that era to base his work on the structure and emotional content of the musical score, rather than giving precedence to creating solos, pas de deux, or divertissements designed to display a ballerina's virtuoso technique.Ivanov excelled in creating visual illusions through patterns of ensemble movement, as in his snowflake dance in The Nutcracker, and is often considered a forerunner of Michel Fokine in utilizing the corps de ballet to develop the plot or theme of a ballet. In addition to The Nutcracker (1892), Ivanov choreographed portions of Swan Lake (1895) and Act II of Cinderella (1893). With Petipa he revived the 18th-century La Fille mal gardée (1882), and with the well-known ballet teacher Enrico Cecchetti re-choreographed Coppélia, creating the version upon which most 20th-century productions of this ballet are based.
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