ilm al-ḥadīthʿ

ilm al-ḥadīthʿ

Islam
      form of investigation established by Muslim traditionists in the 3rd century AH (9th century AD) to determine the validity of accounts (hadiths (Ḥadīth)) of Muhammad's statements, actions, and approbations as reported by various authorities.

      In the first two centuries of Islam, during the period of territorial expansion, there arose a need to accommodate a great diversity of cultures in the Muslim community. The hadiths then multiplied in number and were often fabricated in order to create a normative past that could accommodate contemporary situations. Thus many early opinions on the religious law and dogma of Islam, as well as sectarian prophecies and other expectations, were cast in the form of hadiths. Once the Prophet's personal example, as recorded in hadiths, became established as the universal Muslim norm (sunnah), however, Muslim scholars attempted to determine forgeries or doubtful reports among the existing body of hadiths. They were bound in principle to accept any textually reliable hadith and had to restrict themselves principally to the scrutiny of isnads (isnād)—i.e., the chains of oral or written transmission by which the reliability of hadiths were determined (see isnād).

      All acceptable hadiths therefore fall into three general categories: aḥīḥ (sound), those with a reliable and uninterrupted chain of transmission and a matn (text) that does not contradict orthodox belief; asan (good), those with an incomplete isnad or with transmitters of questionable authority; daʿīf (weak), those whose matn or transmitters are subject to serious criticism.

      Isnads are further evaluated according to the completeness of their chains: they may be unbroken and reliable all the way back to Muhammad (musnad) yet very short (ʿālī), implying less likelihood of error; they may lack one authority in the chain of transmitters or may be missing two or more transmitters (muʿal) or may have an obscure authority, referred to simply as “a man” (mubham).

      The transmitters themselves, once established in the historical record as reliable men, determine further categories; the same tradition may have been handed down concurrently through several different isnads (mutawātir), indicating a long and sound history, or a hadith may have been quoted by three different trustworthy authorities (mashhūr) or by only one (āḥād).

      Many scholars produced collections of hadiths, the earliest compilation being the great Musnad of Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, arranged by isnad. But only six collections, known as al-kutub as-sittah (“the six books”), arranged by matn—those of al-Bukhārī (Bukhārī, al-) (d. 870), Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj (d. 875), Abū Dāʾūd (d. 888), at-Tīrmidhī (Tirmidhī, at-) (d. 892), Ibn Mājāh (d. 886), and an-Nasāʾī (d. 915)—came to be recognized as canonical in orthodox Islam, though the books of al-Bukhārī and Muslim enjoy a prestige that virtually eclipses the other four.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • {ʽ}ilm al-ḥadīth — Form of analysis established by 9th century Muslim traditionalists to verify the merits of the Hadīth. Of the many accounts of Muhammad s statements and actions that constituted the Ḥadīth, some were thought to be forgeries or of doubtful… …   Universalium

  • Hadith — ( ar. الحديث ArTranslit|al ḥadīth, pl. aḥadīth ; lit . narrative ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Hadith collections are regarded as important tools for determining the Sunnah, or Muslim way… …   Wikipedia

  • Hadith studies — (Arabic: علم الحديث ʻulūm al ḥadīth hadith science ‎) are a number of religious disciplines used in the study and evaluation of the Islamic hadith by Muslim scholars.[1] It has been described by one hadith specialist, Jalal al Din al Suyuti, as… …   Wikipedia

  • HADITH — ネAD 壟TH Mot arabe qui signifie récit, propos ou communication, ムad 稜th est utilisé pour désigner plus particulièrement les propos tenus par le prophète Mahomet. Au début, il avait son sens le plus étroit, se limitant aux communications orales… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • ʿIlm ar-ridschal — Ilm ar Ridschal (arabisch ‏علم الرجال ‎ Ilm ar Ridschal, DMG ʿIlm ar riǧāl ‚Wissenschaft (über) die Männer‘) ist ein literarisches Genre der islamischen Literatur, das sich mit den in der isnād Kette eines Hadith genannten Personen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • HADITH — HADITH, the science of Islamic tradition, applying particularly to the sunna (actions, sayings, virtues, opinions, and ways of life of muhammad ). The hadith is one of the four fundamentals which form the background of fiqh (Islamic… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Hadîth — Hadith Religion religions abrahamiques : judaïsme · christianisme · islam C …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hâdith — Hadith Religion religions abrahamiques : judaïsme · christianisme · islam C …   Wikipédia en Français

  • ʿIlm al-kalām — ist ein Begriff der islamischen Theologie und Philosophie. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Wortsinn gemäß Übersetzung 2 Bedeutung im engeren Sinn 3 Allgemeine Bedeutung 4 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ilm ar-Rijal — Ilm al Rijal (Arabic) is the science of people especially as practiced in Islam, where it was first applied to the Sirah Rasul Allah , the life of Muhammad.Since the sira is part of the sunnah, or moral example that Muslims are supposed to follow …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”