- Hölderlin, Friedrich
▪ German poetin full Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlinborn March 20, 1770, Lauffen am Neckar, Württemberg [Germany]died June 7, 1843, TübingenGerman lyric poet who succeeded in naturalizing the forms of classical Greek verse in German and in melding Christian and classical themes.Hölderlin was born in a little Swabian town on the River Neckar. His father died in 1772, and two years afterward his mother married the burgomaster of the town of Nürtingen, where Friedrich attended school. But his mother was again widowed, in 1779, and left alone to bring up her family—which included Friedrich, his sister Heinrike, and his half-brother Karl. His mother, a parson's daughter and a woman of simple and rather narrow piety, wanted Friedrich to enter the service of the church. Candidates for the ministry received free education, and accordingly he was sent first to the “monastery schools” (so called since pre-Reformation times) at Denkendorf and Maulbronn and subsequently (1788–93) to the theological seminary in the University of Tübingen, where he obtained his master's degree and qualified for ordination.Hölderlin could not, however, bring himself to enter the ministry. Contemporary Protestant theology, an uneasy compromise between faith and reason, offered him no safe spiritual anchorage, while acceptance of Christian dogma was not wholly compatible with his devotion to Greek mythology, which made him see the gods of Greece as real living forces whose presence manifests itself to humans in sun and earth, sea and sky. The strain of divided allegiance remained a permanent condition of his existence. Although he did not feel called to be a Lutheran pastor, Hölderlin did have a strong sense of religious vocation; for him, being a poet meant exercising the priestly function of mediator between gods and humans.In 1793, through Friedrich Schiller (Schiller, Friedrich von)'s recommendation, Hölderlin obtained the first of several posts as a tutor (in most of which he failed to give satisfaction). Schiller befriended the younger man in other ways too; in his periodical Neue Thalia, he published some of the poetry that Hölderlin had written, as well as a fragment of his novel Hyperion. This elegiac story of a disillusioned fighter for the liberation of Greece remained unfinished. Hölderlin held Schiller in great reverence; he saw him again when in 1794 he left his tutor's post in order to move to Jena. His early poems clearly reveal Schiller's influence, and several of them acclaim the new world the French Revolution had seemed to promise in its early stages: they include hymns to freedom, to humanity, to harmony, to friendship, and to nature.In December 1795 Hölderlin accepted a post as tutor in the house of J.F. Gontard, a wealthy Frankfurt banker. Before long, Hölderlin fell deeply in love with his employer's wife, Susette, a woman of great beauty and sensibility, and his affection was returned. In a letter to his friend C.L. Neuffer (February 1797), he described their relationship as “an everlasting happy sacred friendship with a being who has really strayed into this miserable century.” Susette appears in his poems and in his novel Hyperion, the second volume of which appeared in 1799, under the Greek name of “Diotima”—a reincarnation of the spirit of ancient Greece. Their happiness was short-lived; after a painful scene with Susette's husband, Hölderlin had to leave Frankfurt (September 1798).Though physically and mentally shaken, Hölderlin finished the second volume of Hyperion and began a tragedy, Der Tod des Empedokles (The Death of Empedocles), the first version of which he nearly completed; fragments of a second and a third version have also survived. Symptoms of great nervous irritability alarmed his family and friends. Nevertheless, the years 1798–1801 were a period of intense creativity; in addition to a number of noble odes, they produced the great elegies “Menons Klagen um Diotima” (“Menon's Lament for Diotima”) and “Brod und Wein” (“Bread and Wine”). In January 1801 he went to Switzerland as tutor to a family in Hauptwyl, but in April of the same year Hölderlin returned to Nürtingen.Late in 1801 he once more accepted a post as tutor, this time at Bordeaux, France. But in May 1802, after only a few months in this position, Hölderlin suddenly left Bordeaux and traveled homeward on foot through France. On his way to Nürtingen he received news that Susette had died in June; when he arrived he was completely destitute and suffering from an advanced stage of schizophrenia. He seemed to recover somewhat as a result of the kind and gentle treatment he received at home. The poems of the period 1802–06, including “Friedensfeier” (“Celebration of Peace”), “Der Einzige” (“The Only One”), and “Patmos,” products of a mind on the verge of madness, are apocalyptic visions of unique grandeur. He also completed verse translations of Sophocles' Antigone and Oedipus Tyrannus, published in 1804. In this year a devoted friend, Isaak von Sinclair, obtained for him the sinecure post of librarian to the landgrave Frederick V of Hesse-Homburg. Sinclair himself provided a modest salary, and Hölderlin improved noticeably under his care and companionship. In 1805 Sinclair (who refused to believe that Hölderlin was insane) was falsely accused of subversive activities and held in custody for five months. By the time he was released, Hölderlin had succumbed irretrievably and, after a spell in a clinic in Tübingen, was moved to a carpenter's house, where he lived for the next 36 years.Hölderlin gained little recognition during his lifetime and was almost totally forgotten for nearly 100 years. It was not until the early years of the 20th century that he was rediscovered in Germany and that his reputation as one of the outstanding lyric poets in the German language was established in Europe. Today he is ranked among the greatest of German poets, especially admired for his uniquely expressive style: like no one before or since, he succeeded in naturalizing the forms of classical Greek verse in the German language. With passionate intensity he strove to reconcile the Christian faith with the religious spirit and beliefs of ancient Greece; he was a prophet of spiritual renewal, of “the return of the gods”—utterly dedicated to his art, hypersensitive, and therefore exceptionally vulnerable. In the end his mind gave way under the strains and frustrations of his existence.William Witte Ed.Additional ReadingDetailed bibliographical information appears in F. Seebass, Hölderlin-Bibliographie (1922); A. Kelletat and M. Kohler, Hölderlin-Bibliographie 1938–1950 (1953); and the periodical surveys in the Hölderlin-Jahrbuch from 1947.The major modern edition of Hölderlin's works is Sämtliche Werke, edited by Friedrich Beissner and Adolf Beck, 8 vol. (1943–85). Beissner also edited a plain text of the complete works in one volume (1964). There is a one-volume collection of Hölderlin's letters, edited by Ernst Bertram (1935). The poems of Hölderlin's maturity, together with the second and third fragmentary versions of his drama Der Tod des Empedokles, have been translated by Michael Hamburger in Friedrich Hölderlin: Poems and Fragments, bilingual edition (1966). A translation of Selected Poems was published in 1944 (2nd ed., 1954) by J.B. Leishman. Hyperion has been translated by W.R. Trask (1965).Biographical and critical studies in English include Ronald Peacock, Hölderlin (1938); Agnes Stansfield, Hölderlin (1944); L.S. Salzberger, Hölderlin (1952); and David Constantine, Hölderlin (1988). Important aspects of Hölderlin's art are discussed in E.L. Stahl, Hölderlin's Symbolism (1945), and “Hölderlin's Idea of Poetry” in The Era of Goethe (1959). A number of illuminating studies by various hands are gathered together in Über Hölderlin, edited by J. Schmidt (1970). Alessandro Pellegrini, Friedrich Hölderlin: Sein Bild in der Forschung (1965), is a detailed history of Hölderlin criticism. Richard Unger, Hölderlin's Major Poetry: The Dialectics of Unity (1976), considers All-Unity as a dominant aspect of Hölderlin's poetry. Other studies include Adrian Del Caro, Hölderlin: The Poetics of Being (1991); and Aris Fioretos (ed.), The Solid Letter: Readings of Friedrich Hölderlin (1999).
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