Gavin, James Maurice

Gavin, James Maurice

▪ United States general
born March 22, 1907, New York, New York, U.S.
died February 23, 1990, Baltimore, Maryland
 U.S. Army commander known as “the jumping general” because he parachuted with combat troops during World War II.

      After graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York (1929), Gavin was commissioned a second lieutenant of the infantry. He became a paratrooper in 1941 and went on to command the 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment, which joined the 82nd Airborne Division under Major General Matthew Ridgway (Ridgway, Matthew Bunker). Gavin led assaults on Sicily and on Salerno Bay, Italy, in 1943, after which he reached the rank of brigadier general, and he jumped with the parachute assault section of the division on the first night of the Normandy Invasion (June 5–6, 1944). Elements of Gavin's section took the town of Sainte-Mère-Église and guarded river crossings on the flank of the Utah Beach landing area. After Ridgway was given command of the XVIII Airborne Corps, Gavin was made major general and commanded the 82nd Airborne Division during operations in The Netherlands. His division later fought in Germany until the German army surrendered in 1945.

      After the war Gavin was chief of staff of the Fifth Army, chief of staff of allied forces in southern Europe, and commanding general of the U.S. VII Corps in West Germany. He became a lieutenant general in 1955. While heading army research and development, he became a strong opponent of President Dwight D. Eisenhower (Eisenhower, Dwight D.)'s defense policy because of its dependence on nuclear weapons. After his retirement in 1958, he served as ambassador to France (1961–63) and became a prominent critic of the Vietnam War. Gavin was the author of such books as Airborne Warfare (1947), Crisis Now (1968), and the autobiographical On to Berlin (1978).

Additional Reading
Biographies are Bradley Biggs, Gavin (1980); and T. Michael Booth and Duncan Spencer, Paratrooper: The Life of Gen. James M. Gavin (1994). S.L.A. Marshall, Night Drop: The American Airborne Invasion of Normandy (1962, reissued 1984), written by the assigned combat historian, recounts the mission of the 82nd and 101st airborne divisions on June 6, 1944.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • James Maurice Gavin — als Major General (Generalmajor) James Maurice „Jumpin Jim“ Gavin (Geburtsname: James Nally Ryan; * 22. März 1907 in New York City; † 23. Februar 1990 in Baltimore, Maryland), auch the jumping general genannt, war ein US amerika …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • James Gavin — James M. Gavin Pour les articles homonymes, voir Gavin. James M. Gavin Surnom Slim Jim (Jim l élancé) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • James Nally Ryan — James Maurice Gavin als Major General (Generalmajor) James Maurice „Jumpin Jim“ Gavin (Geburtsname: James Nally Ryan; * 22. März 1907 in New York City; † 23. Februar 1990 in Baltimore, Maryland), auch the jumping general genannt, war ein US… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • James M. Gavin — James Maurice Gavin als Major General (Generalmajor) James Maurice „Jumpin Jim“ Gavin (Geburtsname: James Nally Ryan; * 22. März 1907 in Brooklyn, New York City; † 23. Februar 1990 in Baltimore, Maryland), auch the jumping general genannt, war… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • James M. Gavin — Infobox Military Person name= James Maurice Gavin born= birth date|1907|3|22 died= death date and age|1990|02|23|1907|03|22 placeofbirth= New York City, New York placeofdeath= Baltimore, Maryland placeofburial= caption= James M. Gavin, then Major …   Wikipedia

  • James M. Gavin — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Gavin. James M. Gavin James M. Gavin …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Gavin — Infobox Given Name Revised name = Gavin imagesize= caption= pronunciation= gender = Male meaning = region = origin = related names = footnotes = Gavin is a common given name in Ireland, England, Scotland, Guyana and Wales. It is the late medieval …   Wikipedia

  • Gavin — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Prénom Gavin est un prénom courant en Écosse, qui serait issu du nom du chevalier Gauvain, et est porté par plusieurs personnalités : Gavin Bryars… …   Wikipédia en Français

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