- Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve
large, remote wilderness area in northern Alaska, U.S. It is part of a vast region of national parks, monuments, and preserves located north of the Arctic Circle that stretches for hundreds of miles from west to east. Proclaimed a national monument in 1978, the area underwent boundary changes in 1980 when it became a national park and preserve. The total area of the park is 11,756 square miles (30,448 square km); the preserve, which adjoins the park in two units—one on the northeast and the other on the southwest—covers an additional 1,482 square miles (3,838 square km).At the core of the park are the Endicott Mountains, a portion of the central Brooks Range. The mountains are characterized by jagged peaks that rise to more than 7,000 feet (2,130 metres) above sea level, gentle Arctic valleys, wild rivers, and many lakes. The southern slopes are forested with spruce, aspen, and birch, contrasting with the barren northern reaches of tundra at the edge of Alaska's North Slope. Part of the habitat of the western herd of northern caribou (reindeer) is found in the park; other wildlife includes grizzly (Alaskan brown) bears, Dall sheep, moose, and wolves.The park has no roads but can be accessed by air. The park's headquarters are located about 200 miles (320 km) to the southeast at Fairbanks. Noatak National Preserve adjoins the park on the northwest, Kobuk Valley National Park is about 50 miles (80 km) to the west, and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is about 75 miles (120 km) to the east.
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