fibre, man-made

fibre, man-made


      fibre whose chemical composition, structure, and properties are significantly modified during the manufacturing process. Man-made fibres are spun and woven into a huge number of consumer and industrial products, including garments such as shirts, scarves, and hosiery; home furnishings such as upholstery, carpets, and drapes; and industrial parts such as tire cord, flame-proof linings, and drive belts. The chemical compounds from which man-made fibres are produced are known as polymers (polymer), a class of compounds characterized by long, chainlike molecules of great size and molecular weight. Many of the polymers that constitute man-made fibres are the same as or similar to compounds that make up plastics, rubbers, adhesives, and surface coatings. Indeed, polymers such as regenerated cellulose, polycaprolactam, and polyethylene terephthalate, which have become familiar household materials under the trade names rayon, nylon, and Dacron (trademark), respectively, are also made into numerous nonfibre products, ranging from cellophane envelope windows to clear plastic soft-drink bottles. As fibres, these materials are prized for their strength, toughness, resistance to heat and mildew, and ability to hold a pressed form.

      Man-made fibres are to be distinguished from natural fibres such as silk, cotton, and wool. Natural fibres also consist of polymers (in this case, biologically produced compounds such as cellulose and protein), but they emerge from the textile manufacturing process in a relatively unaltered state. Some man-made fibres, too, are derived from naturally occurring polymers. For instance, rayon and acetate, two of the first man-made fibres ever to be produced, are made of the same cellulose polymers that make up cotton, hemp, flax, and the structural fibres of wood. In the case of rayon and acetate, however, the cellulose is acquired in a radically altered state (usually from wood-pulp operations) and is further modified in order to be regenerated into practical cellulose-based fibres. Rayon and acetate therefore belong to a group of man-made fibres known as regenerated fibres.

      Another group of man-made fibres (and by far the larger group) is the synthetic fibres (synthetic fibre). Synthetic fibres are made of polymers that do not occur naturally but instead are produced entirely in the chemical plant or laboratory, almost always from by-products of petroleum or natural gas. These polymers include nylon and polyethylene terephthalate, mentioned above, but they also include many other compounds such as the acrylics, the polyurethanes, and polypropylene. Synthetic fibres can be mass-produced to almost any set of required properties. Millions of tons are produced every year.

      This article reviews the composition, structure, and properties of man-made fibres, both regenerated and synthetic, and then describes the ways in which they are spun, drawn, and textured into useful fibres. For a full understanding of the material from which these fibres are made, it is recommended that the reader begin with the article industrial polymers, chemistry of.

Chemical composition and molecular structure

Linear, branched, and network polymers
 One of the features common to all the fibre-forming polymers is a linear structure. As explained in the article industrial polymers, chemistry of, polymers are built up by the joining together, through strong covalent bonds, of smaller molecular units known as monomers. When these monomers are joined end-to-end like links along a chain, a polymer with a simple linear structure is formed. In some polymers shorter chains grow off the long chain at certain intervals, so that a branched structure is formed. In other polymers the branches become numerous and cross-link to other polymer chains, thus forming a network structure. (These three polymer structures are illustrated in Figures 1A, 1B, and 1C—> of industrial polymers, chemistry of.)

      Materials made of linear and branched polymers will hold their shape when cooled, owing to the considerable attraction (known as intermolecular forces, or van der Waals forces) that such large molecules exert upon one another. With the application of heat, however, these materials will soften and eventually become molten, as the molecules, which are not cross-linked by covalent bonds, overcome the intermolecular forces and flow past one another. Linear and branched polymers will also dissolve in suitable solvents. Such behaviour makes linear polymers especially suitable for forming into fibres, which, as is explained below, are usually spun from a molten state or from solution. Few highly branched polymers are suitable for fibres, because they do not crystallize readily and have relatively poor mechanical properties.

      Network polymers form enormous, complex, chemically bonded structures that do not melt without undergoing chemical decomposition. In addition, while network polymers may soften and swell upon treatment with solvents, they do not readily dissolve. Such properties render most network polymers unsuitable for forming into fibres.

Influence of chemical structure on properties
       Properties and Applications of Prominent Man-Made Fibres, TableThe most important fibre-forming polymers are shown in Table 1 (Properties and Applications of Prominent Man-Made Fibres, Table). For details on their composition, properties, and applications, links are provided from the table to entries on the materials. An important requirement of these polymers is that they have melting points (melting point) which are sufficiently high to make the fibres useful—for instance, so that clothing made from them can be ironed or pressed—but which also fall within a range that permits melt-spinning without decomposition of the polymer. Alternatively, polymers that melt at too high a temperature for practical melt-spinning or polymers that decompose at melt-spinning temperatures may be suitable for fibre forming if they can be dissolved and then spun from solution. The extent to which a polymer possesses these essential properties is often determined by the structure of its repeating units. To illustrate the manner in which these structural units can result in either good or poor fibre-forming properties, several basic polymer structures are discussed below, along with variations in chemical structure that cause variations in fibre-forming properties.

Polyolefins (polyolefin)
      Many polymers are derived from the olefins (olefin), a family of hydrocarbon compounds—that is, compounds containing hydrogen (H) and carbon (C)—which are produced from the refining of petroleum and natural gas. An olefin contains one double bond between two carbon atoms. The general chemical formula can be represented as CH2=CHR, with R representing any of several possible atoms or groups of atoms. As the repeating unit of a polymer, the compound has the following chemical structure:

      Here the brackets signify that the compound is a repeating unit, and n represents the number of times the unit is repeated in the polymer.

      When R in the above structure represents a methyl group (CH3), the polymer obtained is polypropylene. Polypropylene is a material of moderately high melting temperature (176 °C, or 349 °F) that can be melt-spun into fibres useful for several types of clothing, upholstery, carpets, and nonwoven fabrics. When R is hydrogen (H), the polymer is polyethylene, a relatively low-melting material (137 °C, or 279 °F) that finds use as a fibre in industrial applications—e.g., nonwoven fabrics—but not in most household applications.

      Still another variation is found when R represents a cyano, or nitrile, group (C≡N), containing carbon and nitrogen linked by a triple bond. In this case the polymer obtained is polyacrylonitrile, an acrylic that does not melt without decomposition and therefore must be solution-spun into fibres used in clothing, drapes, and carpets.

      It can be observed from the structural variations noted above that the methyl and cyano groups in polypropylene and polyacrylonitrile raise melting points and alter solubility. At the same time, however, they are known to have a detrimental effect on tensile properties. For example, although fibres made from polypropylene can be very strong, their tensile strength is only about one-fourth that of the high-modulus polyethylene fibres.

Polyesters (polyester) and polyamides
      As noted in industrial polymers, chemistry of: Step-growth polymerization (industrial polymers, chemistry of), one important route to the formation of polymers is the reaction of dicarboxylic acids with alcohols to form esters (containing CO−O groups) and with amines to form amides (containing CO−NH groups). The difference in properties produced by reacting with alcohols as opposed to amines can be illustrated by two structures.

      In the first structure (above), when X represents oxygen (O), the polyester polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is obtained. Having a melting point of 265 °C (509 °F), PET can be melt-spun into very practical and cheap fibres that are widely employed in clothing, furnishings, carpets, and tire cord under such trademarked names as Dacron and Terylene. On the other hand, when X is an amine group (NH), a polyamide with a melting point greater than 400 °C (750 °F) is formed. This compound, polyethylene terephthalamide, can only be spun from solution, using costly solvents; therefore, it is not made into fibres.

      In the second structure (above), when X represents oxygen, a very low-melting polyester called polyhexamethylene adipate, unsuitable for fibres, is obtained. When X represents an amine group, however, a useful polyamide, polyhexamethylene adipamide ( nylon 6,6), is obtained. With a melting point of 265 °C (509 °F), nylon 6,6 can be melt-spun readily into fibres employed in apparel, carpets, and tire cord.

      From the above illustrations, it is clear that the amide (CO−NH) groups produce much higher melting points than do the ester (CO−O) groups, even when the overall structures of the polymers are otherwise identical. The reason for this is that the CO−NH combinations are capable of a type of chemical bonding known as a hydrogen bond. Hydrogen bonds can produce bonds between polymer chains that are similar to the covalently bonded cross-links found in network polymers. They are not covalent bonds, however, and do not form true cross-links. In particular, the strength of the hydrogen bonds diminishes with the application of heat or solvent, allowing the polymers to be spun from the melt or from solution.

      Very high melting points and oxidatively stable bonds can be produced when the CO−NH groups of the polyamide structures illustrated above are combined with aromatic hydrocarbons. When these stiff, ring-shaped molecules take the place of the more flexible CH2 groups, very high-melting aromatic polyamides, or aramids, are obtained. Better known by the trademarks Kevlar and Nomex, aramids are made into flame-resistant clothing, bulletproof vests, tire cord, and stiffening reinforcement for composite materials used in large structures such as boat hulls and aircraft parts. The structures of these two compounds are shown below.

Cellulose-based (cellulose) polymers
      Cellulose, a complex carbohydrate that is the basic structural component of the plant cell wall, is the most abundant polymer on earth. The basic structure of cellulose and its derivatives is shown below.

      In unaltered native cellulose, X represents hydrogen, forming a number of pendant hydroxyl (OH) groups. Hydroxyl groups, like amides, are capable of forming hydrogen bonds. Partly as a result of such bonds, native cellulose behaves much like a cross-linked polymer, melting only with chemical decomposition—and therefore precluding melt-spinning into fibres. On the other hand, cellulose can be spun from solution when the OH groups are converted to other groups. For instance, rayon fibres can be formed by converting the OH groups to xanthate groups (e.g., O−CS−S−Na; an organic salt containing oxygen, carbon, sulfur, and sodium) in a basic solution prior to spinning and then converting the xanthate groups back to OH groups by spinning the dissolved compound into an acidic bath. Substitution of an acetyl group (O−CO−CH3) for the OH group leads to a material that can be spun from a simple solvent such as acetone. These fibres are known as cellulose acetate, or simply acetate.

      In order to achieve certain desirable fibre properties that cannot be obtained by polymers alone or to overcome certain deficiencies of polymers, various additives are mixed into polymer melts or solutions prior to the spinning of fibres. Some of the more common additives are heat and light stabilizers (especially important for nylon), flame retardants, and delustrants such as titanium dioxide to dull the natural sheen of man-made fibre.

      In some cases dyes (dye) or pigments (pigment) may be added to the melt or solution prior to the spinning of the fibre. Ordinarily, fibres are coloured after spinning by dyes dissolved in baths of boiling water. The water serves to carry the dyes into the fibres, where acidic dyes bind to basic sites and basic dyes bind to acidic sites. However, some fibres cannot be penetrated by water after they have been dried in the spinning process. In the case of polyesters, organic compounds such as benzophenone are used to carry the dyes into the fibres under pressure. In the case of acrylic fibres high in polyacrylonitrile, dyes are applied during the spinning process. At this time the freshly precipitated fibres, prior to the drying and collapse of their gel structure, still contain some water and solvent and are therefore open to the entry of basic dyes that bind to acidic sites on the polymers.

      Pigments, which are insoluble colorants, can also be added to polymer solutions or melts prior to spinning. Pigments are often added to modacrylics (acrylics low in polyacrylonitrile and modified by other monomers) because the fibres, which are very sensitive to light, fade or yellow even after dyeing. The addition of pigments to the spinning solution prevents fading and yellowing of the fibres to some degree. The fibres are especially useful for outdoor fabrics such as awnings and boat coverings.

      Polypropylene is another material that is very hydrophobic (water-repelling); moreover, the polymer has no acidic or basic sites for the binding of dyestuffs. Consequently, pigments are added to polypropylene melts prior to spinning.

Processing and fabrication

      Polymer that is to be converted into fibre must first be converted to a liquid or semiliquid state, either by being dissolved in a solvent or by being heated until molten. This process frees the long molecules from close association with one another, allowing them to move independently. The resulting liquid is extruded through small holes in a device known as a spinnerette (spinneret), emerging as fine jets of liquid that harden to form solid rods with all the superficial characteristics of a very long fibre, or filament. This extrusion of liquid fibre-forming polymer, followed by hardening to form filaments, is called spinning (a term that is actually more properly used in connection with textile manufacturing). Several spinning techniques are used in the production of man-made fibre, including solution spinning (wet or dry), melt spinning, gel spinning (a variant on solution spinning), and emulsion spinning (another variation of solution spinning).

Solution spinning
      One of the oldest methods for the preparation of man-made fibres is solution spinning, which was introduced industrially at the end of the 19th century. Solution spinning includes wet spinning and dry spinning. The former method was first used to produce rayon fibres, and the latter method was used to spin cellulose triacetate to acetate fibres. In both methods, a viscous solution of polymer is pumped through a filter and then passed through the fine holes of a spinnerette. The solvent is subsequently removed, leaving a fibre.

 The wet-spinning process is illustrated schematically in Figure 1—>. During wet spinning the spinnerette is generally (but not always) placed in the spin bath, a coagulation bath in which solvent diffuses out of the extruded material and a nonsolvent, usually water, diffuses into the extrudate. The resulting gel may be oriented by stretching during this stage, as the polymer is coagulated, or the freshly formed fibres may be stretched after they are removed from the spin bath. At this point the fibre, containing solvent and nonsolvent (e.g., water), is washed with more nonsolvent (again, usually water). A lubricant, referred to as the fibre finish, is generally applied before the fibre is dried on large, heated drum rolls. The fibre is then wound onto spindles or sent to a cutter. The cutter produces fibre in lengths of 2.5 to 15 cm (1 to 6 inches) known as staple. A spindle that has been fully wound with continuous fibre is called a package.

      In dry spinning, the solution of polymer is pushed through a spinnerette into a heated column called the spinning tower, where the solvent evaporates, leaving a fibre. The emerging fibre may contain solvent that may have to be removed by further heating or by washing. This operation is followed by stretching, application of finish, and either take-up on a spindle or cutting to staple.

      The wet-spinning method is capable of spinning a large number of fibres at a time because several thousand holes may be present in a single spinnerette. The large bundle of emerging fibres, known as tow, can be spun at rates slow enough to make possible the use of a large spin bath and large washing rolls, drying rolls, and other processing equipment. Wet spinning is thus highly economical, the low spinning rates being compensated for by the large tows to give high overall productivity. In dry spinning, on the other hand, the rate of spinning is much higher, but relatively small bundles of fibre are extruded in order to achieve adequate solvent removal and drying. As a consequence, productivity is lower than in wet spinning. Dry spinning is being phased out for most commodity fibres and is used only for expensive specialty fibres, such as spandex, that cannot be spun by any other process.

      The use of solvents that can be recovered from the spin bath is becoming more common in solution spinning. Acrylic fibres are an example of this trend. In some older acrylic processes the solvents were salts such as sodium or ammonium thiocyanates, but the preferred method now is to use an amide-type solvent—e.g., N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc)—which can be recovered from the spin bath by distillation. Amide solvents are also used for the spinning of some aramids—e.g., for the trademarked fibres Nomex and Conex.

       rayon fibres traditionally have been spun from xanthate solutions, as noted above, but this process has been abandoned in developed countries owing to environmental problems caused by the carbon disulfide ingredients and also by salts produced in treating the xanthate with acid. Newer plants use an inorganic solvent, morpholine N-oxide, which can be recovered by distillation of the spin bath.

Melt spinning
 The most economical method of spinning is melt spinning, primarily because there is no solvent to be recovered as in solution spinning and because the spinning rates are so high. In this process (illustrated schematically in Figure 2—>), a viscous melt of polymer is extruded through a spinnerette containing many holes (but not nearly so many as in solution spinning) into a process zone called the spinning tower. There the molten polymer is solidified by a blast of cold air, and the numerous fibres are collected, after application of finish, at high speed. In a process known as spin-drawing, fibres may be drawn in-line to several times their original length. Packages may be collected directly from the spinning tower to give what is called continuous filament, or several lines of fibre may be collected into a large tow for cutting to staple.

      Some filaments may be melt-spun through a single-hole spinnerette to yield a monofilament that is of much larger diameter than usual textile fibres. Drawing may be done in-line or as a separate step. The monofilaments are used for such products as fishing line and lawn furniture.

Gel spinning
      Gel spinning is an old technique that has come into use commercially only since the 1980s. As originally applied, solutions of very high solid contents (20–80 percent) were used; such solutions were similar to semisolids. In the modern adaptation of this process, polymer of an extremely high molecular weight is dissolved in a solvent of low concentration (i.e., 1 to 2 percent), making a very viscous solution. This solution is either dry- or wet-spun to fibre, which, still retaining most of the solvent, is actually a gel of polymer and solvent. While in the gel state, the fibre can be stretched in order to pull the molecules of the polymer into an elongated state, instead of the usual solid state of chain-folded molecules. Ultrahigh-strength, high-stiffness polyethylene fibres, marketed under such trademarks as Spectra, are commercially produced using gel-spinning techniques.

Emulsion spinning
      Some nonmelting and insoluble polymers can be ground to a finely divided powder, mixed into a solution of another polymer, and solution-spun to fibres. The soluble polymer can be removed by a solvent or by burning and the residual fibre collected. Such a process can be used to make fibres of fluorocarbons such as Teflon (trademark), which have extremely high melting points. Even materials that are not polymers—e.g., inorganic materials such as ceramics—can be suspended in a solution of a cheap polymer such as cellulose and spun to fibre. The cellulose can be burned away to leave a sintered mass in fibre form. Such fibres are used as replacements for hazardous asbestos fibres.

Split-film fibres
      Very cheap fibres for use in applications that cannot justify the cost of fibres spun by the usual methods (for instance, packaging materials) may be prepared by the split-film method. This process consists of extruding a polymer such as polypropylene through a die to obtain a ribbon, which is then passed through numerous cutting blades that slit the ribbon or film into continuous smaller ribbons resembling very coarse fibres. This process, which produces crude but very useful fibres, is frequently practiced on-site by the user of the final product.

Stretching and orientation
      The spinning processes described above produce some orientation of the long polymers that form spun filaments. Orientation is completed by stretching, or drawing, the filament, a process that pulls the long polymer chains into alignment along the longitudinal axis of the fibre and causes them to pack closely together and develop cohesion.

      Wherever the polymer chains are able to pack closely together in a fibre, there is a tendency toward an ordered arrangement of the atoms with respect to one another. These tightly packed bundles of molecules are called crystallites (crystallite), because they are regions that possess the regular and precise arrangement of atoms characteristic of all crystals. Between the crystallites are regions in which the molecules have not been able to align themselves so precisely. These are called amorphous, or noncrystalline, regions. In considering fibre structure, then, the polymer chains may be regarded as regions of ordered crystalline arrangement embedded in amorphous material.

      During the drawing operation the polymer chains slide over one another as they are pulled into alignment along the longitudinal axis of the fibre. As drawing continues, more and more of the molecules are brought to a state where they can pack alongside one another into crystallites. In these regions the molecules are able to hold tightly together as a result of intermolecular forces and resist further movement with respect to one another. For instance, after nylon is spun, the filament may be drawn to as much as five times its original length before it resists further stretching. At this point the molecules are aligned as effectively as possible into crystalline regions and are holding tightly together. The filament is then able to withstand great force without further stretching.

      The degree of alignment of fibre molecules affects the properties of a fibre in several ways. The more closely the molecules pack together, the greater is the ultimate strength, or breaking strength, of the fibre. This increase in ultimate strength is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of elongation that the fibre can sustain before reaching its breaking point; the molecules are not able to slide over one another as they could before alignment took place. If the load becomes too great, the fibre will rupture. Because the closely packed molecules no longer have great freedom of movement, a high degree of orientation also tends to increase fibre stiffness or rigidity.

      Water is unable to penetrate between molecules in the crystalline region of a fibre as well as it penetrates the amorphous regions; therefore, increased alignment tends to lower the moisture absorption of the fibre. Increased resistance to water penetration in turn affects the dyeing properties of highly oriented fibres; the molecules of dyestuff cannot migrate from the dye bath into the spaces between the fibre molecules. Increased resistance to penetration by foreign molecules also improves the general chemical stability of a fibre, since highly oriented fibres are more resistant to chemical attack.

      Fibres change in appearance as they are drawn. In the undrawn state, nylon is usually dull and opaque; as the filaments are drawn and molecular orientation increases, the filaments acquire the transparency and lustre characteristic of drawn nylon.

Drawing techniques
      Fibres can be drawn either as an integral part of the spinning operation or in a separate step. Fibres such as nylon and polypropylene can be drawn without applying external heat (or at a temperature no greater than about 70 °C [160 °F])—a process referred to as cold drawing. Other fibres, such as polyester, that are spun at extremely high rates yield what is known as partially oriented yarns (POY)—i.e., filaments that are partially drawn and partially crystallized and that can be drawn at a later time during textile operations. Many fibres, such as PET, require that a hot-drawing step follow the spinning process fairly soon, or they will become brittle. Avoiding such brittleness is part of the reason for preparing partially oriented yarns. Acrylics may receive a hot-drawing (known as plastic stretch) following drying, but a portion of the molecular orientation is relaxed by a subsequent annealing step, which uses steam under pressure to prevent the fibres from pilling when rubbed during use. Nylon intended for ultrahigh-strength end uses such as tire cord requires hot drawing; aramids also can be greatly improved by this process. For instance, continuous-filament Nomex, a trademarked aramid, is hot-drawn to give a tensile strength nearly double that of the as-spun product used for staple. Kevlar 29, another trademarked aramid, is drawn at a temperature over 400 °C (750 °F) to produce Kevlar 49, a fibre with nearly double the stiffness of the undrawn product.

 Texturing is the formation of crimp, loops, coils, or crinkles in filaments. Such changes in the physical form of a fibre (several examples of which are shown in Figure 3—>) affect the behaviour and hand of fabrics made from them. Hand, or handle, is a general term for the characteristics perceived by the sense of touch when a fabric is held in the hand, such as drapability, softness, elasticity, coolness or warmth, stiffness, roughness, and resilience.

      For continuous yarns used in apparel, a number of texturing processes may be employed either in a textile factory or by the fibre producer. In the latter case the yarns are referred to as producer-textured yarns. Most apparel texturizing techniques are high-speed processes. Processes for large tows may run at lower speeds but at higher volume.

      In order for staple fibres to be spun into yarn, they must have a waviness, or crimp, similar to that of wool. This crimp may be introduced mechanically by passing the filament between gearlike rolls. It can also be produced chemically by controlling the coagulation of a filament in order to create a fibre having an asymmetrical cross section—that is, with one side thick-skinned and almost smooth and the other side thin-skinned and almost serrated. When wet, such fibres swell to a greater extent on the thin-skinned side than on the thick-skinned side, causing a tendency to curl.

      A similar effect can be produced from bicomponent fibres. These are fibres spun from two different types of polymer, which are extruded through holes set side-by-side in such a way that the two filaments join as they coagulate. When the filament is drawn, the two polymers extend to different degrees, producing a helical crimp when the strain is relaxed.

      One popular texturizing process is false-twisting. In this technique, twist is inserted into a heated multifilament yarn running at high speed. The yarn is cooled in a highly twisted state, so that the twist geometry is set, and then the yarn is untwisted. Untwisting leaves filaments that are still highly convoluted, allowing the production of a textured yarn of much greater volume than the yarn would be in an untextured state.

      False-twist texture is usually combined with drawing. Partially oriented (POY) nylon and polyester, which have been spun at extremely high rates and are already partially crystalline, are both drawn and textured in this way.

      Fibres spun from very large bundles of fibre, called tow, are generally crimped in-line by feeding two tows into a stuffer box, where the tows fold and compress against each other to form a plug of yarn. The plug may be heated by steam injection so that, upon cooling, a zigzag crimp is set in the filaments. Following crimping, the tow is cut to staple and baled for shipping to the textile manufacturer.

      Knit-deknit texturing may be used on drawn fibre in order to produce crimp of a knitted-loop shape. In this process a yarn is knitted into a tubular fabric, set in place by means of heat, and then unraveled to produce textured yarn.

Air jet
      Air-jet texturing is used with a single type of yarn or with a blend of filament yarns. In the latter case fancy yarn mixtures are obtained. This method of texturing is carried out by feeding a wet yarn or a dry yarn plus a small amount of water into a high-speed jet of air. Yarns textured in such a process contain a large number of very fine filaments, however, increasing the probability of entanglement.

Additional Reading
Jacqueline I. Kroschwitz (ed.), Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering, 2nd ed., 17 vol. (1985–90), is the most comprehensive source of information on polymer science and includes articles on the major topics treated in this article; it is also available in a condensed, 1-vol. edition, Concise Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering (1990). Two additional reference works are Geoffrey Allen and John C. Bevington (eds.), Comprehensive Polymer Science: The Synthesis, Characterization, Reactions & Applications of Polymers, 7 vol. (1989); and Joseph C. Salamone (ed.), Polymeric Materials Encyclopedia, 12 vol. (1996). Books on polymer science for the nonscientific reader are Hans-Georg Elias, Mega Molecules (1987; originally published in German, 1985); and Raymond B. Seymour and Charles E. Carraher, Giant Molecules: Essential Materials for Everyday Living and Problem Solving (1990).Two good reference books on synthetic fibres are R.W. Moncrieff, Man-Made Fibres, 6th ed. (1975); and F. Happey (ed.), Applied Fibre Science, 3 vol. (1978–79), a very thorough source. Martin Grayson (ed.), Encyclopedia of Textiles, Fibers, and Nonwoven Fabrics (1984), compiles subject articles from the multivolume Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Herman F. Mark, S.M. Atlas, and E. Cernia (eds.), Man-Made Fibers: Science and Technology, 3 vol. (1967–68), provides in-depth reviews of selected fibres. Andrzej Ziabicki, Fundamentals of Fibre Formation: The Science of Fibre Spinning and Drawing (1976), is a treatise for the expert on fibre spinning. H.H. Yang, “Nomex Aramid Fibre,” in Menachem Lewin and Jack Preston (eds.), High Technology Fibers, part C (1993), pp. 77–178, and Kevlar Aramid Fiber (1993), describe two types of aromatic polyamide fibres, while Yang's Aromatic High-Strength Fibers (1989), is the definitive work on the structure and property relationships for polymers used to make ultrahigh-strength, high-modulus fibres.J. Preston

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Universalium. 2010.

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