- Essad Paşa (Toptani)
▪ Albanian political leaderborn c. 1864, , Tiranë, Albaniadied June 13, 1920, Paris, Francepolitical leader who played a prominent but often disruptive role in Albania's affairs during the early years of the 20th century.Essad was the scion of a rich Albanian family. He joined the Young Turk movement in 1908 and became deputy for Albania in the new Turkish parliament. The most powerful of the central native lords, he was given command of the Turkish forces at Shkodër (Scutari) during the First Balkan War, but he traitorously delivered the town to the Montenegrins (1913). He was then appointed minister of interior and of war in the first sovereign government of Albania under Prince William of Wied, where he intrigued against the government with an eye to becoming ruler himself. Though Essad was forced to leave the country when his plans were discovered (May 1914), his unsettling influence precipitated the eventual fall of Prince William in September. During World War I Essad won the recognition of French authorities at Salonika as head of an Albanian government-in-exile. He was assassinated in Paris by Avni Rustem, an Albanian student.
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