Dart, Raymond A.

Dart, Raymond A.

▪ Australian anthropologist
in full  Raymond Arthur Dart 
born February 4, 1893, Toowong, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
died November 22, 1988, Johannesburg, South Africa

      Australian-born South African physical anthropologist and paleontologist whose discoveries of fossil hominins (members of the human lineage) led to significant insights into human evolution.

      In 1924, at a time when Asia was believed to have been the cradle of mankind, Dart's recognition of the humanlike features of the Taung skull, recovered in South Africa near the great Kalahari desert, substantiated Charles Darwin's prediction that such ancestral hominin forms would be found in Africa. Dart made the skull the type specimen of a new genus and species, Australopithecus africanus, or “southern ape of Africa.” His claim that a creature with an ape-sized brain could have dental and postural characteristics approaching those of humans initially met with hostile skepticism because his theory entailed the principle of mosaic evolution, or the development of some characteristics in advance of others. His claim also differed sharply from the mosaicist position of Elliot Smith, who held that hominization began with an enlarged cranial capacity. Nevertheless, Dart lived to see his theories corroborated by further discoveries of Australopithecus remains at Makapansgat in South Africa in the late 1940s and by the subsequent discoveries of Louis Leakey (Leakey, Louis S.B.), which firmly established Africa as the site of mankind's earliest origins.

      Dart studied at the University of Queensland and the University of Sydney. From 1923 to 1958 he taught on the faculty of medicine at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, where the Institute for the Study of Mankind in Africa was founded in his honour.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Dart , Raymond Arthur — (1893–1988) Australian anatomist Born in Toowong, Australia, Dart was educated at the universities of Queensland and Sydney where he qualified as a physician in 1917. After a short period (1919–22) at University College, London, Dart moved to… …   Scientists

  • Dart, Raymond Arthur — born Feb. 4, 1893, Toowong, Brisbane, Queen., Austl. died Nov. 22, 1988, Johannesburg, S.Af. Australian born South African physical anthropologist and paleontologist. In 1924, when Asia was still believed to have been the cradle of humankind,… …   Universalium

  • Dart, Raymond Arthur — (4 feb. 1893, Toowong, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia–22 nov. 1988, Johannesburgo, Sudáfrica). Antropólogo físico y paleontólogo sudafricano de origen australiano. En 1924, cuando aún se creía que Asia había sido la cuna de la humanidad,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Raymond Dart — Infobox Scientist |name =Raymond Dart box width = image width = caption =Raymond Dart with Taung skull birth date =February 4 1893 birth place = Toowong, Queensland death date =November 22 1988 death place = residence = citizenship = nationality …   Wikipedia

  • DART — Das Wort Dart bezeichnet ein Spiel, siehe Darts einen australischen Kleinstwagen, siehe Dart (Auto) eine britische Pop Band, siehe Darts (Band) eine Bootsklasse, siehe Dart (Katamaran) 16, 18, 20 einen Freiflugkörper einer Rakete, siehe Dart… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Raymond — /ray meuhnd/, n. 1. Henry Jarvis /jahr vis/, 1820 69, U.S. publicist: founder of The New York Times. 2. a male given name: from Germanic words meaning counsel and protection. * * * (as used in expressions) Aron Raymond Claude Ferdinand Raymond… …   Universalium

  • Raymond — (as used in expressions) Aron, Raymond (Claude Ferdinand) Chandler, Raymond (Thornton) Tyrus Raymond Cobb Dart, Raymond Arthur Flatt, Lester (Raymond) Hood, Raymond M(athewson) Kroc, Ray(mond Albert) Leavis, F(rank) R(aymond) Loewy, Raymond… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Raymond Dart — Raymond Arthur Dart est un anthropologue australien né le 4 février 1893 et mort le 22 novembre 1988. En 1924 en Afrique du Sud, il a découvert et décrit l « enfant de Taung », le premier fossile d Australopithèque. Sommaire 1 Parcours… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Raymond Dart — Raymond Arthur Dart (* 4. Februar 1893 in Toowong bei Brisbane, Australien; † 22. November 1988 in Johannesburg, Südafrika) war ein australischer Anatom und Paläoanthropologe. Bekanntheit erlangte er durch die Erstbeschreibung des „Kindes von… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Raymond van Barneveld — im Dezember 2006 Spielerinformationen Name …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”