- connective tissue disease
Introductionany of the diseases that affect human connective tissue. Diseases of the connective tissue can be divided into (1) a group of relatively uncommon genetic disorders (genetic disease, human) that affect the primary structure of connective tissue and (2) a number of acquired maladies in which the connective tissues are the site of several more or less distinctive immunological and inflammatory (inflammation) reactions. The hereditary (genetic) connective tissue diseases include Marfan syndrome, homocystinuria, and osteogenesis imperfecta. The acquired diseases include, among many others, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus erythematosus), rheumatic fever, and osteoarthritis. Both types of disease are described in this article.Hereditary disorders of connective tissueHereditary disorders of connective tissue are a heterogeneous group of generalized single-gene-determined disorders that affect one or another of the primary elements of the connective tissues ( collagen, elastin, or ground substance [glycosaminoglycans]). Many cause skeletal (bone disease) and joint (joint disease) abnormalities that may interfere seriously with normal growth and development. These conditions are rare compared with the acquired connective tissue diseases.Marfan syndrome, also called arachnodactyly (“spider fingers”), is the most common of the hereditary disorders of connective tissue, having an estimated prevalence of about 15 cases per 1,000,000 population. In Marfan syndrome a genetic mutation causes a defect in the production of fibrillin, a protein found in connective tissue. The main skeletal (skeletal system, human) characteristic is excessive length of the extremities. Weakness of joint capsules, ligaments, tendons, and fasciae is responsible for such manifestations as double-jointedness, recurrent dislocations, spinal deformities, flat feet (flatfoot), hernias (hernia), and dislocation of the lens of the eye. Cardiovascular abnormalities, which result from weakness in the middle coat (media) of the great vessels, include insufficiency of the aortic valve and aneurysm (weakening of the wall and consequent bulging) of the ascending segment of the aorta.Marfan syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait; in other words, the gene involved is not a sex gene. No more than 15 percent of cases occur as an isolated instance in a family and may be attributable to a new mutation. Death is usually due to heart failure or an aneurysm of the aorta. A normal life span is possible with medications that control blood pressure; surgical replacement of the aorta may also prolong an affected individual's life span.homocystinuria, so called because of the presence of the amino acid homocystine in the urine, may closely resemble Marfan syndrome. Distinctive from the latter, however, is the occurrence of progressive mental deterioration, fair skin with a tendency to flushing, osteoporosis (thinning of the bones), which may result in fractures (fracture), and thrombosis (blood clotting) of the coronary blood vessels and the medium-size peripheral blood vessels. Homocystinuria is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait (it is not manifested unless inherited from both parents). Affected persons have a deficiency of cystathionine synthetase, the enzyme required for the conversion of the amino acid cystathionine to cysteine. Death from vascular occlusion secondary to atherosclerosis is common during childhood, but persons with the disorder have survived into their 50s.Ehlers-Danlos (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome) syndrome is manifested particularly by an abnormal skin (skin disease) elasticity and fragility and by loose-jointedness. The skin, peculiarly stretchable even in early childhood, gradually loses its elasticity. Minor injury can cause lacerations that tend to bleed severely and to extend. scoliosis (lateral curvature of the spine), recurrent dislocations of joints, and hernias (hernia) of the abdominal wall or the diaphragm (the muscular partition between the chest and the abdomen) are seen as in Marfan syndrome, and there may be blue sclerae (the “whites” of the eye). The underlying defect of the disorder has not been determined, but it is likely that it involves the abnormal organization of collagen bundles. Some researchers have also detected an excess of elastin fibres in the connective tissue of persons with the disease. (Collagen and elastin are two of the fibrous proteins in connective tissue.) It is now clear that there are at least 10 distinct varieties of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The disease is most commonly inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Death from rupture of a major blood vessel may occur in childhood, but most affected persons live at least to middle age.osteogenesis imperfecta is a disorder of connective tissue characterized by thin-walled, extremely fracture-prone bones deficient in osteoblasts (osteoblast) (bone-forming cells), as well as by malformed teeth, blue sclerae, and progressive deafness. Type I osteogenesis imperfecta is the result of a dominant gene. It develops in childhood and is typified by single fractures from trivial stress. The tendency to fracture lessens at puberty. Type II osteogenesis imperfecta, the result of a recessive gene, is more severe and less common than type I. The child at birth suffers from countless fractures, and life expectancy is short. The fundamental defect in this disorder appears to involve the synthesis of collagen fibres.alkaptonuria is a rare inherited (autosomal recessive) disorder in which the absence of the liver and kidney enzyme homogentisic acid oxidase results in an abnormal accumulation of homogentisic acid, a normal intermediate in the metabolism of the amino acid tyrosine. Some homogentisic acid is excreted in the urine, to which, upon alkalinization and oxidation, it imparts a black colour. The remainder is deposited in cartilage and, to a lesser degree, in the skin and sclerae. The resultant darkening of these tissues by this pigment is termed ochronosis and is accompanied by gradual erosion of cartilage and progressive joint disease.pseudoxanthoma elasticum, also known as Grönblad-Strandberg syndrome, primarily affects the skin, eyes, and blood vessels. The word pseudoxanthoma refers to the yellowish papules (pimplelike protuberances) that occur most commonly in the folds of the skin of the neck, armpits, and groin. The colour results from the thickening and fragmentation of elastic fibres in the deep layers of the skin. Calcium deposition may occur in the skin, and premature arteriosclerosis is common. The characteristic eye lesion is that of angioid streaks of the retina, which are found in at least 80 percent of cases of the disease. Deterioration of vision may occur because of bleeding or degenerative changes. Bleeding in the stomach is also fairly common.The mucopolysaccharidoses include eight or more separate lysosomal storage disorders that, to varying degrees, affect the skeleton, brain, eyes, heart, and liver. The varieties have in common the abnormal production, the storage, and the excessive excretion of one or more mucopolysaccharides (now known as glycosaminoglycans; complex high-molecular-weight carbohydrates (carbohydrate) that form the chief constituent of the ground substance between the connective tissue cells and fibres). The mucopolysaccharidoses include Hurler syndrome (Hurler's syndrome), Scheie syndrome (Scheie's syndrome), Hunter syndrome (Hunter's syndrome), Sanfilippo syndrome (Sanfilippo's syndrome), Morquio syndrome, and Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome.Hurler syndrome (Hurler's syndrome), or mucopolysaccharidosis type I, is the most common and most rapidly fatal. Few children afflicted with it reach the age of 10. Abnormalities begin to appear when the infant is a few months old; cerebral function deteriorates gradually, and various deformities of the extremities and face develop, accentuated by stiffness of the joints. The facial deformities and dwarfed, deformed bodies that occur in Hurler syndrome and in Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II) are referred to as gargoylism. Individuals with a mucopolysaccharidosis other than Hurler syndrome commonly live to adulthood, but a normal life span is unusual. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive in all the types except Hunter syndrome (Hunter's syndrome), which is sex-linked recessive (only males show the disease).In myositis ossificans progressiva, bone develops in tendons, fasciae, and striated (striped or voluntary) muscle. Skeletal growth is normal, although certain abnormalities occur in the majority of cases, particularly shortening of the thumbs or of the big toes or both. Symptoms usually begin in childhood and progress irregularly until the third decade of life. Lesions may begin abruptly with local tenderness, swelling, and fever or may develop very gradually, with increasing stiffness and firmness as the only symptoms.Acquired diseases of connective tissueThe acquired connective tissue diseases, which are described in detail in this section, display certain common clinical features, including inflammation of the joints (polyarthralgia and arthritis), serous (fluid-exuding) membranes ( pleurisy and pericarditis), and small blood vessels (vasculitis) and a high frequency of involvement of various internal organs that are particularly rich in connective tissue (e.g., the lungs (lung)). The walls of inflamed blood vessels, portions of which may become necrotic (i.e., may die), are often found to contain characteristic deposits of hyaline (translucent) material called fibrinoid because staining with dyes (e.g., eosin) reveals tinctorial properties similar to fibrin (a fibrous protein that forms the lattice of blood clots).A number of observations suggest that acquired connective tissue diseases are autoimmune diseases (immune system disorder)—i.e., diseases that result from reactions against components of the body as if they were foreign substances. In general terms these observations are that: (1) there are abnormally high levels of immunoglobulins (antibody) in the blood; the immunoglobulins, also called gamma globulins (gamma globulin), consist wholly or chiefly of antibodies (antibody); (2) these antibodies include several directed against particular serum proteins and other components of the affected person's own tissues; (3) there are complexes (combinations) of these antibodies and their antigens (antigen) at the sites of tissue damage; (4) at the sites of tissue damage there are also aggregations of the cells (plasma cells and lymphocytes (lymphocyte)) that are responsible for the production of antibodies; (5) there is a favourable response to treatment with medications, such as corticosteroid (corticoid) hormones, known or believed to inhibit the production of antibodies; (6) connective tissue diseases are associated with other disorders known or suspected to be the result of an aberrant immune system.Antibody-antigen interactions may result in the destruction of red or white blood cells or platelets or may inactivate circulating hormones or enzymes. The antibody-antigen complexes may be deposited in the walls of blood vessels and there combine with a substance in the blood called complement, with a variety of injurious effects, including those seen in serum sickness and in rheumatoid arthritis and the kidney damage seen in systemic lupus erythematosus (see below Systemic lupus erythematosus (connective tissue disease)). Last, the interaction may result in cellular immunity, which plays an important role in certain autoimmune disorders that involve solid organs, as well as in transplant rejection and cancer immunity.rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease in which inflammation of the peripheral joints occurs. The disease process within the joints begins as an inflammation of the synovium (synovial tissue) (joint-lining tissue). In most cases there is an increase, often considerable, in the amount of synovial (joint) fluid. Other manifestations of the disorder include blood-vessel inflammation in the form of tiny areas of necrosis in the fingertips, chronic leg ulcers (ulcer) and lesions in the peripheral nerves, inflammation of the pericardium and of the sclerae, inflammation and nodule formation in the lungs and pleura (tissue covering the lungs), anemia, enlargement of the lymph nodes, and Sjögren, or sicca, syndrome (see below).Systemic lupus erythematosusSystemic lupus erythematosus (lupus erythematosus) (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause that affects, either singularly or in combination, the skin, joints, kidneys, nervous system, and membranes lining body cavities and often other organs as well. The disease has a tendency toward remissions and exacerbations and a multitude of immunologic abnormalities, including antibodies (antibody) that react with components of cell nuclei, as well as antibodies directed against circulating proteins, blood cells, and solid organs. The disease may develop at any period of life but appears with highest frequency during the second to fourth decades. Most affected persons are women; the disorder is three times more common in black women than in white women. Systemic lupus erythematosus exists in many forms, from the very mild to severe and rapidly fatal. The annual incidence of the disease has been estimated to be at least three to six cases per 100,000 population.The identification of systemic lupus erythematosus (erythema) is based primarily on certain clinical findings, the most specific and frequent of which include: (1) facial erythema (reddening), which often takes the form of a butterfly-shaped rash over the bridge of the nose and the cheeks and which occurs in only a minority of adults with the disease, (2) discoid lupus, an erythematous raised patchy eruption that heals with scarring and atrophy of the skin and may be found anywhere on the body, (3) Raynaud syndrome (see below), (4) photosensitivity, manifested by unusual skin reaction after exposure to sunlight, (5) nondeforming arthritis, (6) inflammation of the kidneys (glomerulonephritis), (7) inflammation of the chest lining ( pleurisy) or of the membranous sac enclosing the heart ( pericarditis), or both, and (8) central nervous system involvement, in the form of psychosis or convulsions (convulsion). In addition to specific organ involvement, affected persons also have constitutional symptoms—including fever, weakness, fatigability, and weight loss—that are often the first manifestation of illness.Some degree of anemia is found in most persons with the disease, often the result of an increased rate of red cell destruction attributable to antibodies that coat the cell and damage its membrane. Low white blood cell counts ( leukopenia) and platelet counts ( thrombocytopenia) are also characteristic; these too can often be traced to the presence of specific autoantibodies. Abnormal bleeding may result from thrombocytopenia or from an antibody that combines with and inactivates certain plasma proteins (clotting factors) involved in blood coagulation. Rheumatoid factor (see above Rheumatoid arthritis) occurs in about 25 percent of cases. Most important from the standpoint of diagnosis are the antibodies that combine with various components of cell nuclei. One or more of these antinuclear antibodies are present in virtually all persons with active disease. The first of these antibodies to be recognized was the lupus erythematosus cell factor, discovery of which permitted detection of previously obscure and unrecognized forms of systemic lupus erythematosus.The compound thus formed is avidly ingested by certain phagocytic (particle-engulfing) white blood cells called neutrophilic leukocytes, which, distended by the compound of antibody and of lymphocyte-nucleus component, are the characteristic lupus erythematosus cells. Two antibodies fairly characteristic of lupus erythematosus react specifically with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (DNA) and double-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) (RNA) of cell nuclei. The presence of these two antibodies is associated with an active disease, in particular with inflammation of the kidney and with skin and brain lesions.Evidence strongly suggests the possibility that one or more viruses (virus) may be the ultimate source of the antigenic stimulation responsible for the development of these autoantibodies.The treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus aims to reduce or control inflammation and to limit damage to vital organs. Salicylates (aspirin) are used to relieve pain, particularly when joints are involved, and to reduce fever. In most cases, it is necessary to employ corticosteroid (corticoid) hormones or NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) to reduce inflammation in acute crises of the disease. Certain antimalarial medications, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, have been found to exert an anti-inflammatory effect on skin and joint lesions and are widely used for the treatment of milder forms of the disease. Immunosuppressive medications are prescribed for patients whose kidneys or central nervous systems are affected by the disease.The course of systemic lupus erythematosus is highly variable. Acute episodes occur, but more commonly the disease gives rise to a subacute or chronic illness that smolders for many months or years, subject to spontaneous remissions and exacerbations. There may be long intervals (up to 20 years or more) in which the affected person is entirely free of symptoms, with little or no evidence of the disease aside from serologic abnormalities, which tend to persist indefinitely. In most cases the prospects of survival are determined by the degree of kidney involvement and its responsiveness to treatment with corticosteroids and other measures. Persons with severe and persistent thrombocytopenia (deficiency of blood platelets) and hemolytic anemia or with central nervous system disease fare poorly compared with those whose illness mainly involves the joints.There are a number of medications that have been found to be responsible for the induction of a lupuslike disease. Typically, this disease is manifested by the appearance of fever, joint pain, pleurisy, deficiency of white blood cells, and the development of various antinuclear antibodies (antibodies that interact with cell nuclei). The clinical features thus closely resemble those of lupus, with the exception that evidence of kidney involvement is notably rare, and the symptoms generally disappear upon discontinuation of the offending drug. Medications that have had this effect include hydralazine, procainamide, various anticonvulsants, isoniazid, penicillin, and penicillamine. In one study, these or other drugs were found to account for 3 to 12 percent of all the cases identified as lupus. Only a small proportion of persons who receive these drugs present evidence of a lupuslike disease.scleroderma, or systemic sclerosis, is a disorder of connective tissue of uncertain causation characterized by inflammatory, fibrotic (increase of fibrous tissue), and degenerative changes in the skin, joints, muscles, and certain internal organs. The term scleroderma refers to the thickening and tightening of the skin, by which the disease was first recognized. The disease affects women approximately three times as often as men. The initial symptoms, which usually appear in the third to fifth decade of life, include painless swelling or thickening of the skin of the hands and fingers, pain and stiffness of the joints (polyarthralgia)—often mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis—and paroxysmal blanching and cyanosis (becoming blue) of the fingers induced by exposure to cold ( Raynaud syndrome). The skin changes may be restricted to the fingers (sclerodactyly) and face but often spread. Although there may be spontaneous improvement in the condition of the skin, those persons with more diffuse scleroderma tend to lose the ability to straighten their fingers. The disease may remain confined to the skin for many months or years, but in most cases there is insidious involvement of the esophagus, intestinal tract, heart, and lungs. In many cases, the disease progresses extremely slowly.polymyositis is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of skeletal muscle (striated muscle), in particular the muscles of the shoulder and pelvic girdles. The muscle disease is manifested primarily by weakness and later by atrophy and contractures. Muscle of the heart, esophagus, and larynx may be affected. In at least 15 percent of affected adults, especially those with involvement of the skin, or dermatomyositis, cancers (cancer) are present. The diagnosis is supported by an increase in the levels of enzymes that are released into the bloodstream when there is active destruction of muscle fibres and is confirmed by microscopic examination of affected muscle.Necrotizing vasculitidesThe disorders included in this category are characterized by inflammation of segments of blood vessels (blood vessel), chiefly small and medium-sized arteries. Clinical manifestations depend upon the site and severity of arterial involvement.No single cause or disease mechanism has been identified for necrotizing vasculitides. In some cases the lesions are similar to those encountered in human serum sickness and in animals given large amounts of foreign protein, in which conditions there is convincing evidence to link the group of disorders to the deposition of immune (antigen-antibody (antigen)) complexes in the walls of small blood vessels. An antigen (Australia antigen) associated with viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) has been found in the serum of several persons with polyarteritis nodosa, raising the possibility that some cases of polyarteritis may result from the deposition in blood vessels of immune complexes of viral antigen and antibody.In polyarteritis nodosa, inflammation and necrosis of small and medium-sized arteries lead to local dilation and the formation of small aneurysms. The kidneys (kidney) are the most frequently involved organs, and the disease is often first manifested by hypertension or other evidence of nephritis (kidney inflammation). Hypersensitivity angiitis tends to involve smaller blood vessels than those affected in polyarteritis nodosa. Frequently, the affected person seems to have experienced hypersensitivity to various medications, particularly penicillin, sulfonamides, and iodides.Wegener granulomatosis is a disorder marked by the combination of granulomatous lesions of the upper air passages and lower respiratory tract; destructive inflammation of blood vessels, both arteries and veins, especially in the lungs; and localized kidney disease. Treatment includes a combination of immunosuppressive medications, which reduce inflammation and inhibit abnormal cell growth.Takayasu arteritis, with variants called pulseless disease, branchial arteritis, and giant-cell arteritis of the aorta, involves principally the thoracic aorta (chest portion) and the adjacent segments of its large branches. Symptoms, including diminished or absent pulses in the arms, are related to narrowing and obstruction of these vessels. Takayasu arteritis is most common in young Asian women. The diagnosis and extent of vascular involvement can be established by means of angiography (X-ray observation of the blood vessels). Corticosteroids administered early during the course of the disorder may have a beneficial effect, accompanied on occasion by return of pulses. Anticoagulants may prevent thrombosis (formation of blood clots).Giant-cell or temporal arteritis occurs chiefly in older people and is manifested by severe temporal or occipital headaches (in the temples or at the back of the head), mental disturbances, visual difficulties, fever, anemia, aching pains and weakness in the muscles of the shoulder and pelvic girdles (polymyalgia rheumatica), and—in a minority of cases—tenderness and nodularity of the temporal artery. This vessel is the site of an inflammation that is characterized by the presence of numerous giant cells. Treatment with small doses of corticosteroids usually leads to relief of symptoms.Sjögren syndrome (Sjögren's syndrome)Sjögren syndrome (Sjögren's syndrome), or sicca syndrome, is an autoimmune disorder characterized by dryness of the eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca); dryness of the mouth (xerostomia), often coupled with enlargement of the salivary glands; and rheumatoid arthritis. Sometimes the dryness of the eyes and mouth is associated with other connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, dermatomyositis, or scleroderma, rather than with rheumatoid arthritis. Sjögren syndrome is a disorder that primarily affects postmenopausal women. Treatment is directed toward relief of symptoms.rheumatic fever is a rare inflammatory disease that is a complication of untreated infection by Streptococcus A bacteria. It predominantly affects children between the ages of 5 and 15. Although its name is based upon involvement of the joints, rheumatic fever poses the greatest danger to the heart. The prevalence of rheumatic fever is as high as 3 percent in cases in which streptococcal infection is associated with sore throat and pharyngeal exudate (oozing from the throat surfaces). Persons who have had rheumatic fever are more susceptible to recurrences than the general population is to an initial attack.Rheumatic fever may be gradual and unnoticed in onset, or it may develop rapidly. Typically, clinical evidence of the disease appears after a symptom-free latent interval of a few days to several weeks after the inciting streptococcal infection. The major indications of its presence in children include inflammation of the heart (especially the valves, manifested by heart murmurs), swollen joints, chorea (a nervous disorder involving unceasing involuntary movements), subcutaneous nodules, and skin rashes, the most characteristic of which is erythema marginatum (reddening of the skin in disk-shaped areas with elevated edges). Fever is common but not invariably present. Symptoms in adults are usually confined to the heart, the joints, or both. Antibiotics, especially penicillin or erythromycin, are employed during the attack to eradicate the streptococci, whereas aspirin, analgesics, and anti-inflammatory medications are used to treat the acute symptoms. Unless there is damage to heart valves, recovery usually is complete. Scarring and deformity of the valves may lead to their narrowing or failure to close properly, and this may eventually lead to the development of heart failure. The prophylactic use of antibiotics (chiefly penicillin) has led to a dramatic reduction in the frequency of streptococcal infections and resultant recurrences of rheumatic fever.Several antibodies against streptococcus develop in response to infection. These are directed against various constituents of the microorganism or its products. The mechanisms whereby streptococcal infection initiates the process of rheumatic fever appear to be immunological in nature and to be based in large measure on antigenic reactions between a protein constituent of the streptococcal cell walls and human heart tissue and between other fractions of the streptococcus and a component of joint cartilage. Immunoglobulins (antibody) produced in response to these bacterial antigens may act as autoantibodies and be responsible for the inflammation of the heart and joints.amyloidosis is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid, which consists of a filamentous protein that is derived from immunoglobulins, in the connective tissue. The deposition of amyloid may be widespread, with involvement of major organs leading to serious consequences, or it may be limited with little effect on health. The primary form of amyloidosis is unrelated to any other disease and may be hereditary; the secondary form is associated with chronic infections and inflammatory disorders. It appears that amyloid is related to aging in that deposits are found with increasing frequency in the heart and brain of individuals past the age of 70.osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, is a ubiquitous noninflammatory disease of the joints; the weight-bearing joints are particularly affected, including the knees and the hips. The disease is characterized by the progressive deterioration of joint cartilage and by the reactive formation of dense bone and of bony projections at the margins of the joint. Although its suffix indicates otherwise, osteoarthritis does not involve excessive joint inflammation.Osteoarthritic changes have been noted in skeletal remains of Neanderthal man (40,000 BC) and in a wide variety of animal species both large and small. Some erosion of joint cartilage is virtually universal in the elderly and appears to be an inherent part of the aging process. Surveys in the United States and Great Britain are the basis of estimates that 40 to 50 percent of adults have X-ray–visible changes from osteoarthritis in the hands or feet; thus, osteoarthritis is by far the most common form of joint disease.Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpuraThrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a rare disorder that is included with the connective tissue diseases chiefly because of certain clinical similarities to systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus erythematosus). The main features of this disorder, which usually appears suddenly in young women, include thrombocytopenic purpura (presence in the skin of red spots from the escape of blood into the tissues as a result of scarcity of blood platelets), hemolytic anemia ( anemia resulting from destruction of red blood cells), changing neurological manifestations, fever, and kidney failure. There is widespread blockage of small blood vessels—arterioles, venules, and capillaries—by material consisting principally of fibrin, the principal constituent of blood clots. The heart, kidneys, and brain are particularly affected. Treatment includes plasmapheresis, a procedure that removes antigen-antibody complexes from the blood. Surgical removal of the spleen may be necessary if affected individuals do not respond to this treatment or have frequent recurrences of the disease.Relapsing polychondritisRelapsing polychondritis is a rare inflammatory disease that primarily affects cartilage. It begins usually in the fourth or fifth decade and is marked by recurrent periods of inflammation of the cartilage of various tissues of the body, lasting several weeks to months. The external ear and nose are affected most frequently and are eventually disfigured (“ cauliflower ear”) in a high percentage of cases. Eye inflammation also may occur. Involvement of joint cartilages produces pain and swelling of the joints, and the destruction of these cartilages results in a degenerative joint disease that may be disabling. Involvement of the trachea (windpipe) may lead to respiratory obstruction or recurrent pneumonia. The acute manifestations of the disease can usually be suppressed with corticosteroid therapy, but the changes in the cartilage are permanent.Additional ReadingDetailed accounts of the connective tissue diseases and of the rheumatic disorders in general may be found in W.S.C. Copeman, Copeman's Textbook of the Rheumatic Diseases, 6th ed., ed. by J.T. Scott, 2 vol. (1986). A briefer, clinically oriented account may be found in John H. Klipple, Cornelia M. Weyand, and Robert L. Wortmann (eds.), Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases, 11th ed. (1997). Also of interest are Bernard M. Wagner, Raul Fleischmajer, and Nathan Kaufman (eds.), Connective Tissue Diseases (1983); and Emanuel Rubin and John L. Farber (eds.), Pathology, 3rd ed. (1999).
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