Claude, Albert

Claude, Albert

▪ Belgian cytologist
born August 24, 1898, Longlier, Belgium
died May 22, 1983, Brussels

      Belgian-American cytologist who developed the principal methods of separating and analyzing components of the living cell. For this work, on which modern cell biology is partly based, Claude, his student George Palade (Palade, George E.), and Christian de Duve (Duve, Christian René de) shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1974.

 Upon obtaining his M.D. at Liège University, Belgium, in 1928, Claude began research at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University) in New York City. In attempting to isolate the Rous sarcoma virus from chicken tumours, he spun cell extracts containing the virus in centrifuges that concentrated heavier particles in the bottom of the test tube; lighter particles settled in layers above. For comparison, he began centrifuging normal cells. This centrifugal separation of the cell components made possible a biochemical analysis of them that confirmed that the separated particles consisted of distinct organelles. Such analysis enabled Claude to discover the endoplasmic reticulum (a membranous network within cells) and to clarify the function of the mitochondria (see Figure—>) as the centres of respiratory activity.

      Claude turned in 1942 to the electron microscope—an instrument that had not been used in biological research—looking first at separated components, then at whole cells. His demonstration of the instrument's usefulness in this regard eventually helped scientists to correlate the biological activity of each cellular component with its structure and its place in the cell.

      Claude, who became a citizen of the United States in 1941, returned in 1949 to Belgium; through a legal process, he held dual citizenship in the two countries from 1949. While holding professorships at Rockefeller University (to 1972) and the Université Libre in Brussels (to 1969), he served as director (1948–71) of the Jules Bordet Institute.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Claude Albert Mayer — (* 16. November 1918 in Mainz; † 21. Mai 1998 in Wisbech St Mary bei Wisbech) war ein britischer Romanist deutscher Herkunft. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben und Werk 2 Werke 3 Literatur …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Claude , Albert — (1898–1983) Belgian–American cell biologist Claude, who was born at Longlier in Belgium, was educated at the University of Liège where he obtained his doctorate in 1928. He joined the staff of the Rockefeller Institute, New York, in 1929 and in… …   Scientists

  • Claude, Albert — ► (1898 1983) Médico belga. Fue premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología en 1974, compartido con G. E. Palade y Ch. R. de Duve, por sus estudios sobre nuevas técnicas de ultracentrifugación …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Jean-claude albert-weil — (petit fils du professeur Étienne Albert Weil, pionnier de la radiologie, fils de Jean Albert Weil, médecin chef à l’Hôpital central des prisons à Fresnes) est un écrivain français né le 31 mai 1933 à Béziers. Biographie Après avoir fait ses… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jean-Claude Albert-Weil — (petit fils du professeur Étienne Albert Weil, pionnier de la radiologie, fils de Jean Albert Weil, médecin chef à l’Hôpital central des prisons à Fresnes) est un écrivain français né le 31 mai 1933 à Béziers. Biographie Après avoir fait ses… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Coppens, Claude-Albert — (1936 )    Born in Schaerbeek on 23 December 1936, Claude Albert Coppens studied at the Conservatoire in Brussels, where he earned a diploma in piano, and in Paris. He has taught piano and modern piano technique in Brussels, Ghent, and Antwerp… …   Historical Dictionary of Brussels

  • Claude — Albert …   Scientists

  • Albert Claude — Born 24 August 1899( …   Wikipedia

  • Claude A. Fuller — Claude Albert Fuller Claude Albert Fuller (1876–1968) was a lawyer, farmer, member of Arkansas State House of Representatives from 1903–05, and of the U.S. House of Representatives for the 3rd District of Arkansas from 1929 39. Interment at Odd… …   Wikipedia

  • CLAUDE (A.) — CLAUDE ALBERT (1899 1983) La jeunesse d’Albert Claude a été durement forgée: dès sa douzième année, il entrait comme apprenti dans une usine métallurgique, puis il militait activement contre les forces allemandes occupant la Belgique pendant la… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”