chemical equilibrium

chemical equilibrium

      a condition in the course of a reversible chemical reaction in which no net change in the amounts of reactants and products occurs. A reversible chemical reaction is one in which the products, as soon as they are formed, react to produce the original reactants. At equilibrium, the two opposing reactions go on at equal rates, or velocities (velocity), hence there is no net change in the amounts of substances involved. At this point the reaction may be considered to be completed; i.e., for some specified reaction condition, the maximum conversion of reactants to products has been attained.

      The conditions that pertain to equilibrium may be given quantitative formulation. For example, for the reversible reaction AB + C, the velocity of the reaction to the right, r1, is given by the mathematical expression (based on the law of mass action) r1 = k1(A), where k1 is the reaction-rate (reaction rate) constant and the symbol in parentheses represents the concentration of A. The velocity of the reaction to the left, r2, is r2 = k2(B)(C). At equilibrium, r1 = r2, therefore:

      The subscript e represents conditions at equilibrium. For a given reaction, at some specified condition of temperature and pressure, the ratio of the amounts of products and reactants present at equilibrium, each raised to their respective powers, is a constant, designated the equilibrium constant of the reaction and represented by the symbol K. The value of the equilibrium constant varies with the temperature and pressure according to the principle of Le Chatelier (see Le Chatelier, Henry-Louis).

      By methods of statistical mechanics and chemical thermodynamics, it can be shown that the equilibrium constant is related to the change in the thermodynamic quantity called the standard Gibbs free energy accompanying the reaction. The standard Gibbs free energy of the reaction, ΔG°, which is the difference between the sum of the standard free energies of the products and that of the reactants, is equal to the negative natural logarithm of the equilibrium constant multiplied by the so-called gas constant R and the absolute temperature T:

      The equation allows the calculation of the equilibrium constant, or the relative amounts of products and reactants present at equilibrium, from measured or derived values of standard free energies of substances.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chemical equilibrium — In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which the concentrations of the reactants and products have not yet changed with time. It occurs only in reversible reactions, and not in irreversible reactions. Usually, this state… …   Wikipedia

  • chemical equilibrium — cheminė pusiausvyra statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Būsena, kurios metu reakcijos produktai vienodu greičiu susidaro ir virsta pradinėmis medžiagomis. atitikmenys: angl. chemical equilibrium rus. химическое равновесие …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • chemical equilibrium — cheminė pusiausvyra statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. chemical equilibrium vok. chemisches Gleichgewicht, n rus. химическое равновесие, n pranc. équilibre chimique, m …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • chemical equilibrium — cheminė pusiausvyra statusas T sritis Energetika apibrėžtis Reaguojančios sistemos būsena, kai tiesioginės ir atvirkštinės reakcijų spartos susilygina ir nusistovi nekintama cheminė sistemos sudėtis, išliekanti, kol nepasikeičia jos būsenos… …   Aiškinamasis šiluminės ir branduolinės technikos terminų žodynas

  • chemical equilibrium — noun a chemical reaction and its reverse proceed at equal rates • Syn: ↑equilibrium • Derivationally related forms: ↑equilibrate (for: ↑equilibrium) • Hypernyms: ↑chemical reaction, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • chemical equilibrium — Смотри химическое равновесие …   Энциклопедический словарь по металлургии

  • law of chemical equilibrium — noun (chemistry) the principle that (at chemical equilibrium) in a reversible reaction the ratio of the rate of the forward reaction to the rate of the reverse reaction is a constant for that reaction • Syn: ↑equilibrium law • Topics: ↑chemistry …   Useful english dictionary

  • Chemical thermodynamics — is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. Chemical thermodynamics involves not only laboratory measurements of various… …   Wikipedia

  • Chemical potential — Chemical potential, symbolized by μ, is a measure first described by the American engineer, chemist and mathematical physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs. It is the potential that a substance has to produce in order to alter a system.[1] In broadest… …   Wikipedia

  • Chemical stability — when used in the technical sense in chemistry, means thermodynamic stability of a chemical system.[1] Thermodynamic stability occurs when a system is in its lowest energy state, or chemical equilibrium with its environment. This may be a dynamic… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”