- Carracci, Annibale
▪ Italian painterborn Nov. 3, 1560, Bologna, Papal States [Italy]died July 15, 1609, RomeItalian painter who was influential in recovering the classicizing tradition of the High Renaissance from the affectations of Mannerism. He was the most talented of the three painters of the Carracci family.The sons of a tailor, Annibale and his older brother Agostino (Carracci, Agostino) were at first guided by their older cousin Lodovico (Carracci, Lodovico), a painter who persuaded them to follow him in his profession. Annibale's precocious talents developed in a tour of northern Italy in the 1580s, his visit to Venice being of special significance. He is said to have lodged in that city with the painter Jacopo Bassano (Bassano, Jacopo), whose style of painting influenced him for a time. Annibale may be credited with the rediscovery of the early 16th-century painter Correggio, who had been effectively forgotten outside Parma for a generation; Annibale's Baptism of Christ (1585) for the Church of San Gregorio in Bologna is a brilliant tribute to this Parmese master.Back in Bologna, Annibale joined Agostino and Lodovico in founding a school for artists called the Accademia degli Incamminati. The Enthroned Madonna with St. Matthew (1588) Annibale painted for the Church of San Prospero, Reggio, displays two of the most persistent characteristics of his art: a noble classicizing strain combined with a genial and bucolic tone. By the time Annibale collaborated with the other two Carracci on frescoes in the Palazzo Magnani (now the Palazzo Salem; 1588–90) and two other noble houses in Bologna, he had become the leading master among them. His orderly and airy landscapes in these palaces helped initiate that genre as a principal subject in Italian fresco painting.In 1595 Annibale went to Rome to work for the rich young cardinal Odoardo Farnese (Farnese, Palazzo), who wanted to decorate with frescoes the principal floor of his palace, which was one of the most splendid in Rome. In that city Annibale turned eagerly to the study of Michelangelo, Raphael, and ancient Greek and Roman art in order to adapt the style he had formed in the artistic centres of northern Italy to his new surroundings. Having decorated the Camerino (study) in the Palazzo Farnese, he was joined (1597) by Agostino in the chief enterprise of his career—painting the frescoes of the coved ceiling of the Galleria (1597–1603/04) with love fables from Ovid. These decorations, which interweave various illusions of reality in a way that was more complex even than Raphael's famous paintings in the Vatican loggia, were a triumph of classicism tempered with humanity. The powerfully modeled figures in these frescoes are set in a highly complex composition whose illusionistic devices represent an imaginative response to Michelangelo's frescoes on the Sistine ceiling (Sistine Chapel). Despite their elaborate organization, the frescoes are capable of direct appeal owing to their rich colours and the vigour and dynamism of their entire approach. The Galleria Farnese soon became and remained a virtually indispensable study for young painters until well into the 18th century and was an especially rich feeding ground for the Baroque imaginations of Peter Paul Rubens (Rubens, Peter Paul) and Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Bernini, Gian Lorenzo), among others.Annibale's long and intense labours in the Palazzo Farnese had been dismally underpaid by Cardinal Farnese, and the painter never fully recovered from the ingratitude of his patron. He quit work altogether on the Palazzo Farnese in 1605 but subsequently produced some of his finest religious paintings, notably Domine, Quo Vadis? (1601–02) and the Pietà (c. 1607). These works feature weighty, powerful figures in dramatically simple compositions. The lunette-shaped landscapes that Annibale painted for the Palazzo Aldobrandini, especially the Flight into Egypt and the Entombment (both c. 1604), proved important in the subsequent evolution of the heroic landscape as painted in Rome by Domenichino and Nicolas Poussin (Poussin, Nicolas). Annibale died in Rome after several years of melancholic sickness and intermittent production.Additional ReadingAn early biography is Giovanni P. Bellori, The Lives of Annibale & Agostino Carracci (1968), a modern translation of a 1672 Italian study. Denis Mahon, Studies in Seicento Art and Theory (1947, reprinted 1971), contains a brilliant critical rehabilitation of the Carracci. John R. Martin, The Farnese Gallery (1965), is a richly illustrated book devoted to Annibale's principal enterprise, especially to its iconography. Donald Posner, Annibale Carracci: A Study in the Reform of Italian Painting Around 1590, 2 vol. (1971), is a full-scale treatment. Charles Dempsey, Annibale Carracci and the Beginnings of Baroque Style (1977), argues for a new interpretation. Diane DeGrazia Bohlin, Prints and Related Drawings by the Carracci Family: A Catalogue Raisonné (1979), provides full information on approximately 240 prints of all three Carracci. A.W.A. Boschloo, Annibale Carracci in Bologna: Visible Reality in Art After the Council of Trent, 2 vol. (1974), analyzes the series of paintings produced between 1582 and 1595. S.J. Freedburg, Circa 1600: A Revolution of Style in Italian Painting (1983), is a short but scholarly treatment of Caravaggio and Annibale and Lodovico Carracci. Carl Goldstein, Visual Fact over Verbal Fiction: A Study of the Carracci and the Criticism, Theory, and Practice of Art in Renaissance and Baroque Italy (1988), explores the historiography of the painters in the context of the Renaissance tradition of writing artists' lives.
* * *