Burlington, Richard Boyle, 3rd earl of

Burlington, Richard Boyle, 3rd earl of

▪ English architect
born April 25, 1694, London, Eng.
died Dec. 4, 1753, London
 English architect who was one of the originators of the English Palladian (Palladianism) (Neo-Palladian) style of the 18th century.

      Burlington was born into an enormously wealthy aristocratic family. From a young age he was a patron of the arts, interested in the visual arts, music, and literature; the composer George Frideric Handel (Handel, George Frideric) and the poet John Gay (Gay, John) both stayed in his home, and he was a patron of the poet Alexander Pope (Pope, Alexander). A journey to Italy persuaded him that admirable architecture, grounded in the restraint of Classical models, would be essential to the promotion of good taste and decorum in Britain. He studied the works of Andrea Palladio (Palladio, Andrea) and Inigo Jones (Jones, Inigo) and began practice upon returning to London from Vicenza, Italy, in 1719. He advocated a revival of Palladio's and Jones's interpretation of Classical tenets and assembled a collection, the largest to that time, of their drawings (now in the British Architectural Library in London), from which most of his own buildings are derived. He also commissioned numerous illustrations of Palladio's building.

      About 1721 Burlington designed Great (now Old) Burlington Street, No. 29. In 1725 he designed his villa at Chiswick (now in the outer London borough of Hounslow), one of the most influential Palladian buildings in England (completed 1729). The Assembly Rooms at York with the Egyptian Hall (1731–36) are considered the culmination of Burlington's career.

      Burlington's practice of architecture drew criticism from contemporaries; aristocrats of the time did not themselves work in the arts. Yet his money and position enabled him to influence taste and to ensure through his political connections that architects who pursued the Palladian ideals (with the help of Burlington's collections) were able to design important buildings throughout Great Britain and to contribute to the orderly development of the expanding cities. Burlington's work was—in its reliance on earlier models, its rationality, and its restraint—a precursor of later 18th-century Neoclassicism (Classicism and Neoclassicism).

Additional Reading
Biographical works include a collection of essays by various scholars devoted to Burlington: Toby Barnard and Jane Clark (eds.), Lord Burlington: Architecture, Art, and Life (1995). Several exhibitions have centred on his work and collections, and two of the catalogs were widely distributed: John Wilton-Ely (ed.), Apollo of the Arts: Lord Burlington and His Circle (1973); and John Harris, The Palladian Revival: Lord Burlington, His Villa and Garden at Chiswick (1994). Books that include significant material on Burlington include James Lees-Milne, Earls of Creation: Five Great Patrons of 18th-Century Art (1962, reissued 2001); Rudolf Wittkower, Palladio and English Palladianism (1974, reissued 1983; also published as Palladio and Palladianism), a compilation of the art historian's essays; and an important contribution on his political influence, Howard Colvin, “Lord Burlington and the Office of Works,” in the author's Essays in English Architectural History (1999).

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