Berkeley, Sir Lennox

Berkeley, Sir Lennox

▪ British composer
in full  Lennox Randall Francis Berkeley  
born May 12, 1903, Boars Hill, near Oxford, Oxfordshire, Eng.
died Dec. 26, 1989, London
 British composer whose works are noted for their light textures and piquant harmonies.

      Berkeley was born into a titled family. He received a B.A. (1926) from Merton College, Oxford, and then studied (1927–32) in Paris under the renowned teacher Nadia Boulanger (Boulanger, Nadia). While in Paris he met Igor Stravinsky (Stravinsky, Igor) and Francis Poulenc (Poulenc, Francis), both of whom influenced his style; Poulenc remained a lifelong friend. Berkeley returned to Britain in 1935, the year in which his first major work, the oratorio Jonah, was performed. In 1936 he met Benjamin Britten (Britten, Benjamin), with whom he collaborated on an orchestral work, Mont Juic (1937). The two composers maintained a strong professional, as well as personal, association.

      Berkeley's works are characterized by rich melodies and a flair for orchestral texture. His more notable works include the Divertimento (1943), a highly polished orchestral piece, and Piano Sonata (1945), which displays his subtle use of harmony. He is also known for his vocal music, much of it religious, such as the Stabat Mater (1947), written for Britten's English Opera Group. He wrote pieces for specific performers, such as guitarist Julian Bream and oboist Janet Craxton. He composed several operas, including Nelson (1954) and Ruth (1956). Some of his later works, including Sonatina (1962) and his Symphony No. 4 (1978), use atonality.

      He was professor of composition at the Royal Academy of Music (1946–68), honorary professor of music at Keele University (1976–79), and president of the Cheltenham International Festival of Music (1977–83). He was knighted in 1974. Michael Berkeley (b. 1948), Lennox's son, was also a composer.

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