Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb

Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb

▪ German philosopher
born July 17, 1714, Berlin, Prussia [Germany]
died May 26, 1762, Frankfurt an der Oder

      German philosopher and educator who coined the term aesthetics and established this discipline as a distinct field of philosophical inquiry.

      As a student at Halle, Baumgarten was strongly influenced by the works of G.W. Leibniz and by Christian Wolff, a professor and systematic philosopher. He was appointed extraordinary professor at Halle in 1737 and advanced to ordinary professor at Frankfurt an der Oder in 1740.

      Baumgarten's most significant work, written in Latin, was Aesthetica, 2 vol. (1750–58). The problems of aesthetics had been treated by others before Baumgarten, but he both advanced the discussion of such topics as art and beauty and set the discipline off from the rest of philosophy. His student G.F. Meier (1718–77), however, assisted him to such an extent that credit for certain contributions is difficult to assess. Immanuel Kant (Kant, Immanuel) (1724–1804), who used Baumgarten's Metaphysica (1739) as a text for lecturing, borrowed Baumgarten's term aesthetics but applied it to the entire field of sensory experience. Only later was the term restricted to the discussion of beauty and of the nature of the fine arts.

      In Baumgarten's theory, with its characteristic emphasis on the importance of feeling, much attention was concentrated on the creative act. For him it was necessary to modify the traditional claim that “art imitates nature” by asserting that artists must deliberately alter nature by adding elements of feeling to perceived reality. In this way, the creative process of the world is mirrored in their own activity.

      Baumgarten wrote Ethica Philosophica (1740; “Philosophic Ethic”), Acroasis Logica (1761; “Discourse on Logic”), Jus Naturae (1763; “Natural Law”), Philosophia Generalis (1770; “General Philosophy”), and Praelectiones Theologicae (1773; “Lectures on Theology”). His brother, Siegmund Jakob Baumgarten, was an influential Wolffian theologian.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb — (1714–1762) German aesthetician. Baumgarten was born in Berlin and educated at Halle, where he became professor before moving in 1740 to a chair at Frankfurt. He taught a modified Leibnizian system, very much in the spirit of Wolff . He is… …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb — ► (1714 62) Filósofo alemán. Sistematizó la filosofía de lo bello, a la que dio el nombre de Estética …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • BAUMGARTEN, ALEXANDER GOTTLIEB —    professor of Philosophy at Frankfort on the Oder; disciple of Wolf; born at Berlin; the founder of Æsthetics as a department of philosophy, and inventor of the name (1714 1762) …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten — (* 17. Juli 1714 in Berlin; † 27. Mai 1762 in Frankfurt (Oder)) war ein deutscher Philosoph, der in der Tradition der Leibniz Wolff schen Aufklärungsphilosophie stand. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Werke 3 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Baumgarten. Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, né à Berlin en 1714, décédé en 1762, philosophe allemand, disciple de Leibniz et de Christian Wolff. Son frère est Jacques Sigismond Baumgarten. Il enseigna la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten — Nacimiento 17 de julio de 1714 Berlín Fallecimiento …   Wikipedia Español

  • Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten — Infobox Philosopher region = Western Philosophy era = 18th century philosophy color = #B0C4DE image size = 150px name = Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten school tradition = Enlightenment philosophy birth = July 17, 1714 death = May 26, 1762… …   Wikipedia

  • Baumgarten — Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Baumgarten — Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • BAUMGARTEN (A. G.) — BAUMGARTEN ALEXANDER GOTTLIEB (1714 1762) Élève de Christian Wolff à Halle, Baumgarten fut très tôt marqué par la pensée de Leibniz, à laquelle il devait par la suite s’opposer, et par celle de son maître d’alors. Nommé professeur extraordinaire… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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