Baker, Augustine

Baker, Augustine

▪ English monk
born Dec. 9, 1575, Abergavenny, Monmouthshire, Eng.
died Aug. 9, 1641, London

      English Benedictine monk who was an important writer on ascetic and mystical theology.

      Educated at Broadgate's Hall (now Pembroke College), Oxford, Baker was a Roman Catholic convert who evolved an ascetical doctrine based on his reading and personal experiences. His doctrine was not original but yet was vigorously attacked—more for his explicit “method” of mortification and prayer than for his teaching on the ascetic life. Baker was criticized even more severely by some for professing that spiritual guidance came to the soul directly from God and was to be sought and found in prayer.

      Baker wrote his ascetical treatises after being appointed (1624) spiritual director of the English Benedictine nuns at Cambrai, Fr. For those dedicated to the contemplative life in the cloister, he found “method” more hindering than helpful and advised beginning with “affective” prayer. As a help to those who sought his counsel or were entrusted to his care, he recommended especially two 14th-century English works: the anonymous Cloud of Unknowing and Walter Hilton's Ladder of Perfection.

      Sixteen years after his death from the plague, his Sancta Sophia, a systematic work compiled from his treatises, was published. It covers the entire range of ascetic and mystic theology. His other writings available in print are Secretum, a commentary on the Cloud of Unknowing, in which the first section is somewhat of a spiritual autobiography (published under the title The Confessions of Venerable Fr. A.B., 1922) the second section is an exposition of the Cloud itself (ed. by J. McCann, 1924); and The Inner Life and Writings of Dame Gertrude More, 2 vol. (1910).

Additional Reading
Anthony Low, Augustine Baker (1970); James Gaffney, Augustine Baker's Inner Light: A Study in English Recusant Spirituality (1989).

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Universalium. 2010.

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