- Antonelli, Giacomo
▪ Italian cardinalborn April 2, 1806, Sonnino, Papal Statesdied Nov. 6, 1876, Vatican Citycardinal and secretary of state to Pope Pius IX.Though he was never ordained as a priest, Antonelli was created cardinal by Pius in 1847 and became premier (1848) of the Papal States, which were then governed for the first time by a democratic constitution. After his own and succeeding governments had fallen and the revolutionary situation at Rome had led to the assassination of the papal premier Count Pellegrino Rossi in 1848, he courageously remained with Pius at the Quirinal and planned the Pope's flight to Gaeta, Italy, where Antonelli was made acting secretary of state.After the Pope's return to Rome in 1850, Antonelli was officially appointed secretary of state, which he remained until his death. He was in general control of the government of the Papal States until their elimination in 1870 and was in charge of the Pope's relations with other governments until 1876. His policy was to avoid further attempts to introduce constitutional government into the Papal States because he felt it was impossible either to distinguish the pope's spiritual from his temporal power or to subject him to a lay assembly. As a diplomatic opportunist, Antonelli knew that his only hope of preserving the Pope's temporal sovereignty over central Italy during the growing movement for Italian unity was to retain the goodwill of the French government of Napoleon III, which had maintained a garrison in Rome after 1850. He was therefore opposed to the raising of a papal army, which took place in 1860, and to all quarrels with Paris. When the Piedmontese forces entered Rome (1870), he requested them to preserve order by extending occupation around the Vatican, and the papal army was disbanded. Despite his faithful service to the Pope, Antonelli died little mourned by him because of frequent reports of the impurity of his life and of the wealth he accumulated while in office.
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