- Amos, Book of
the third of 12 Old Testament books that bear the names of the Minor Prophets, collected in one book under the Jewish canon titled The Twelve. Amos, a Judaean prophet from the village of Tekoa, was active in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of Jeroboam II (c. 786–746 BC). According to 7:14, Amos was neither a prophet nor the son of a prophet; i.e., he was not a member of a professional prophetic guild. His only credential to prophesy to Israel was a summons by Yahweh.The book is a collection of individual sayings and reports of visions. Whether Amos himself committed any of his sayings to writing is not certain; his words may have been recorded by a scribe from Amos' dictation or by a later writer who knew the sayings from oral tradition. The present arrangement of the sayings reflects the activity of someone other than the prophet.Amos' message is primarily one of doom. Although Israel's neighbours do not escape his attention, his threats are directed primarily against Israel, which, he contends, has defected from the worship of Yahweh to the worship of Canaanite gods. This belief prompts his polemic against the feasts and solemn assemblies observed by Israel. He also pronounces judgment on the rich for self-indulgence and oppression of the poor, on those who pervert justice, and on those who desire the day of Yahweh on which God will reveal his power, punish the wicked, and renew the righteous. That day, Amos warned, will be a day of darkness for Israel because of its defection from Yahweh.The book ends unexpectedly (9:8–15) with a promise of restoration for Israel. Because these verses so radically differ from the threatening nature of the rest of the book, many scholars believe them to be a later addition.
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