Alfvén, Hannes

Alfvén, Hannes

▪ Swedish physicist
in full  Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén  
born May 30, 1908, Norrköping, Sweden
died April 2, 1995, Djursholm

      astrophysicist and winner, with Louis Néel of France, of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1970 for his essential contributions in founding plasma physics—the study of plasmas (ionized gases).

      Alfvén was educated at Uppsala University and in 1940 joined the staff of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. During the late 1930s and early '40s he made remarkable contributions to space physics, including the theorem of frozen-in flux, according to which under certain conditions a plasma is bound to the magnetic lines of flux that pass through it. Alfvén later used the concept to explain the origin of cosmic rays.

      In 1939 Alfvén published his theory of magnetic storms and auroral displays in the atmosphere, which immensely influenced the modern theory of the magnetosphere (the region of the Earth's magnetic field). He discovered a widely used mathematical approximation by which the complex spiral motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field can be easily calculated. magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), the study of plasmas in magnetic fields, was largely pioneered by Alfvén, and his work has been acknowledged as fundamental to attempts to control nuclear fusion.

      After numerous disagreements with the Swedish government, Alfvén obtained a position (1967) with the University of California, San Diego. Later he divided his teaching time between the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and the University of California.

      Alfvén was an early supporter of “plasma cosmology,” a concept that challenges the big-bang model of the origin of the universe. Those who support the theory of plasma cosmology hold that the universe had no beginning (and has no forseeable end) and that plasma—with its electric and magnetic forces—has done more to organize matter in the universe into star systems and other large observed structures than has the force of gravity. Much of Alfvén's early research was included in his Cosmical Electrodynamics (1950). He also wrote On the Origin of the Solar System (1954), Worlds-Antiworlds (1966), and Cosmic Plasma (1981).

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • ALFVÉN (HANNES) — ALFVÉN HANNES (1908 1995) Astrophysicien suédois. Attaché à l’Institut royal de technologie de Stockholm à partir de la fin des années 1930, Alfvén reçoit un poste à l’université de Californie (San Diego) en 1967, à la suite de désaccords avec le …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Alfvén, Hannes Olof Gösta — Alf·vén (äl vānʹ), Hannes Olof Gösta. 1908 1995. Swedish physicist. He won a 1970 Nobel Prize for his theories on plasma physics. * * * ▪ 1996       Swedish astrophysicist (b. May 30, 1908, Norrköping, Sweden d. April 2, 1995, Djursholm, Sweden) …   Universalium

  • Alfvén , Hannes Olof Gösta — (1908–1995) Swedish physicist Alfvén, who was born in Norrkoeping, Sweden, was educated at the University of Uppsala where he received his PhD in 1934. He subsequently worked at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, where he served as… …   Scientists

  • Alfven, Hannes — ► (1908 95) Físico sueco. Fue premio Nobel de Física en 1970, compartido con el francés L. Néel …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Alfven — Alfven, Hannes …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Hannes Alfven — Hannes Alfvén. Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (* 30. Mai 1908 in Norrköping; † 2. April 1995 in Djursholm) war ein schwedischer Physiker. Er erhielt 1970 den Physik Nobelpreis für „seine grundlegenden Leistungen und Entdeckungen in der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén — Hannes Alfvén. Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (* 30. Mai 1908 in Norrköping; † 2. April 1995 in Djursholm) war ein schwedischer Physiker. Er erhielt 1970 den Physik Nobelpreis für „seine grundlegenden Leistungen und Entdeckungen in der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hannes Alfven — Hannes Alfvén Hannes Alfvén Naissance 30 mai 1908 Norrköping (Suède) Décès 2 avril 1995 Djursholm (Suède) Nationalité Suédoise Champs Astrophysique, Physique des plasmas …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén — Hannes Alfvén Hannes Alfvén Naissance 30 mai 1908 Norrköping (Suède) Décès 2 avril 1995 Djursholm (Suède) Nationalité Suédoise Champs Astrophysique, Physique des plasmas …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hannes Alfvén — Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (Aussprache: [ˌhanːəs alˈveːn], * 30. Mai 1908 in Norrköping; † 2. April 1995 in Djursholm) war ein schwedischer Physiker. Er erhielt 1970 den Physik Nobelpreis für „seine grundlegenden Leistungen und Entdec …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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