Botanical Gardens and Zoos

Botanical Gardens and Zoos
▪ 1995


Botanical Gardens
      Notable conservation initiatives marked 1994 as a year of further consolidation for botanical garden networks and the increasingly international nature of plant conservation. In October 1994 the Toromiro Management Group met at the University of Bonn (Germany) Botanical Garden. This group included representatives of botanical gardens, researchers, and conservationists developing an integrated conservation strategy for the tree Sophora toromiro, now surviving only in botanical gardens following its extinction on Easter Island. This was one of the few international conservation programs for a threatened plant linking European collection managers with protected area managers and conservationists in the country of origin. The first experimental reintroductions were planned for 1995.

      Other notable examples of international cooperation included the repatriation of the critically threatened Hawaiian endemic Alsinidendron trinerve from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, near London. This species was close to extinction in the wild and was cultivated by the Waimea Arboretum and Botanical Garden, Haleiwa, Hawaii, as part of a recovery program that would involve reintroduction. Bulbs of the extinct Chilean blue crocus, Tecophilaea cyanocrocus, were sent from Kew to the Chilean national botanical garden at Viña del Mar as part of a collaborative conservation project.

      In May 1994 staff from the Gibraltar Botanic Garden discovered the Silene tomentosa, long thought to be extinct. Seeds and propagation material were collected from the three plants found, and many hundreds of young plants were in cultivation in both Gibraltar and Kew. The Rio de Janeiro botanical garden was cultivating the threatened brazilwood, or pernambuco, tree, Caesalpina echinata, highly prized for its mahogany-like timber and particularly valued for its use in violin bridges. A strategy was being developed to create habitat reserves east of that Brazilian city.

      National and regional conservation efforts continued to develop apace. The Indonesian Plant Conservation Network was launched at the Kebun Raya Indonesia, the botanical garden at Bogor, Java, in July 1994. The network was intended primarily to facilitate communication and cooperation among conservationists working in Indonesia.

      Following a meeting in the Canary Islands, the European Network for Botanic Gardens was inaugurated in May. A parallel network for the United Kingdom and Ireland began work in October 1994 after a meeting at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. Botanic Gardens Conservation International opened a regional office at the Utrecht (Neth.) Botanic Garden, to support activities throughout Europe.

      In recognition of the urgent need to develop regional and local training courses to strengthen the role of botanical gardens as major agents for plant conservation, such courses were being inaugurated in different regions of the world. In 1994, for the second year running, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, held courses on plant-conservation techniques and botanical garden management. The Australian Network for Plant Conservation, in association with the Canberra Institute of Technology, initiated a new course on plant-conservation management. The Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Trivandrum, southern India, introduced a course entitled "Practical Horticulture and Conservation of Tropical Plants."

      There were also happy surprises. In July it was announced that the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx would receive a $15 million gift—its largest ever—from the Mary Flagler Cary Charitable Trust. A small stand of trees, called Wollemi pines, thought to have been extinct for 150 million years, was discovered in Australia. (See . (Environment )) And in Lesotho the world's smallest species of moss, the Cape pygmy moss, Ephemerum capensi, believed extinct, was rediscovered. The specimen was found in the flower beds of the National University of Lesotho's botanical garden! (MICHAEL MAUNDER)

      International coordination and cooperation between zoos has become critical to facilitation of long-term genetic and demographic management of animal collections to implement regional collection plans. In 1994 zoos continued to build the linkages through networks of national and international zoo associations. Comprehensive accreditation programs and codes of ethics were put in place or were under development in several countries.

      The International Union of Directors of Zoological Gardens-the World Zoo Organization functioned as the umbrella organization and counted 48 nations, 129 institutions, and 11 regional zoo associations (August 1994) among its membership. The union's World Zoo Conservation Strategy (1992) was translated into eight languages to better communicate its stated aims and objectives internationally. At its annual conference in São Paulo, Brazil, Aug. 26-Sept. 1, 1994, the IUDZG established a permanent administrative office connected to the International Species Inventory System (ISIS) office at the Minnesota Zoo. The Committee on Inter-Regional Conservation Coordination was formed to organize officials of regional conservation programs, closely linked to the activities of the Conservation Breeding Specialist Groups (CBSG; formerly called Captive Breeding Specialist Group and renamed in September) of the Species Survival Commission of the World Conservation Union. The CBSG generated and recommended various strategic plans. One of these, the Global Captive Action Plan, in September was renamed Global Conservation Action Recommendation to better describe its role. A new Genome Resource Bank program was initiated to preserve sperm, ova, embryos, tissue, and blood.

      The International Studbook added three more species: the Oriental white stork, the potto, and the Vietnamese sika deer; 142 studbooks were maintained. The Cincinnati (Ohio) Zoo hatched 18 Komodo dragons—a record number; the San Diego (Calif.) Zoo bred the open-billed stork, collared pigeon, carmine bee-eater, and Siberian musk deer; the Houston (Texas) Zoo bred the crowned hornbill; and the Honolulu Zoo reproduced the magnificent bird-of-paradise (all of these breedings are believed first occurrences in the U.S.). As part of a joint U.S.-Canadian program, Calgary (Alta.) Zoo hatched the first chick in its new whooping crane breeding facility.

      New facilities opened in Nagoya, Japan (phase II of a new aquarium), Singapore ("Night Safari" exhibit), Moscow (new zoo bridge to connect the two exhibit areas), London (children's zoo), Wuppertal, Germany (South American aviary), and St. Louis, Mo. (research centre and veterinary hospital). Mexico City's Chapultepec Park Zoo reopened in May following $30 million in renovations. The Stanley Park Zoo in Vancouver, B.C., was designated to be phased out by city council decision, without replacement.

      The quality of life for zoo animals remained a subject of much debate. Some, generally single-objective, interest groups targeted zoos and aquariums for closure. Zoo-Check of the Born Free Foundation called for public support to close facilities it deemed substandard. Zoos that had not been able to modernize experienced compounding effects of bad press, attention from antizoo activists, and political disfavour, which often led to reduced financial support. In July the World Society for the Protection of Animals and the Born Free Foundation produced a document called "The Zoo Inquiry" that proposed legislation for zoos and questioned the contribution of zoos to conservation action. (PETER KARSTEN)

      See also Environment ; Gardening .

▪ 1994


Botanical Gardens.
      In 1993 botanical gardens around the world discussed ways to meet the challenges set forth by the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro. Chapter 15 of Agenda 21 specifically called for the implementation of ex situ programs for species conservation. In addition, it was expected that botanical gardens would play a pivotal role in the conference's stated aims of habitat restoration, sustainable use of biological and genetic resources, and promotion of integrated or cross-sectoral conservation programs.

      The networking of botanical gardens was on the upswing. The Australian Network for Plant Conservation was advising the Kebun Raya Indonesia (the botanical gardens at Bogor, Java) on the creation of a national network and the development of a comprehensive strategy for the conservation of Indonesian flora. A conference was held in July 1992 to initiate this ambitious program and to celebrate the 175th anniversary of the Kebun Raya. In Mexico City the Asociación Mexicana de Jardines Botánicos marked its 10th anniversary in March 1993 with a meeting that looked particularly at the educational role of botanical gardens. This theme also predominated at the second International Congress on Education in Botanic Gardens in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria in May 1993. These latter two meetings testified to the remarkable vigour of the botanical garden community in the Spanish-speaking world.

      In April 1993 the Center for Plant Conservation at the Missouri Botanical Garden was host to a major conference on habitat restoration and species reintroduction, two increasingly important areas of botanical garden activity, particularly in North America and Australia. The Bok Tower Gardens in Florida, for instance, were running a reintroduction program for the endangered shrub Conradina glabra.

      The 175th anniversary of the Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques in Geneva was celebrated with a conference on "Nature and Botanical Gardens for the 21st Century." Focusing on the activities of European gardens and again featuring the topics of conservation and education, the meeting was a particularly useful opportunity for Eastern European botanical garden managers to meet with Western European colleagues. In addition, representatives of the Swiss botanical gardens met to initiate a national network.

      In May 1992 more than 60 delegates from Slovak and Czech botanical gardens attended the 25th conference of the Czechoslovak Botanic Gardens. After the breakup of the U.S.S.R., a new association, formed through collaboration between the Moscow Main Botanic Garden and Botanic Gardens Conservation International, was founded to support and coordinate the activities of facilities in Russia and neighbouring countries.

      A number of projects were developing that illustrated the role of botanical gardens in promoting sustainable development. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, near London, worked with the International Institute for the Environment and Development in supporting the drafting of a National Sustainable Development Strategy for the Atlantic island of Saint Helena. Another team at Kew was working closely with Brazilian colleagues on tackling environmental problems in arid northeastern Brazil and focusing particularly on the benefits of plants in the region for local people. In 1993 Kew also inaugurated new training programs on botanical garden management and plant-conservation techniques. Finally, the Conservatoire Botanique National de Porquerolles in the south of France was developing a sophisticated and imaginative program for the conservation of island plants in the Mediterranean.


      The most important event of 1993—indeed of the past decade—was the publication of World Zoo Conservation Strategy. This 76-page document was conceived by the International Union of Directors of Zoological Gardens (IUDZG) and the Captive Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) of the Species Survival Commission of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. A gestation period of about two years resulted in a birth in Brussels in September.

      Zoos and aquariums, with a collective annual visitation of over 600 million people, are linked by international, regional, and national associations, which together constitute one of the largest conservation networks on Earth. The IUDZG/CBSG strategy document emphasized the enormous potential of this network and listed three major areas in which zoos and aquariums could help achieve conservation goals and set their own policies and priorities:

      1. By actively supporting the conservation of endangered species and their natural ecosystems. Coordinated zoo breeding programs are a necessary part of the conservation of many species, some of which will survive only with the support of a captive population. Where reintroduction or restocking is feasible, the protection of a flagship species will also help maintain other life-forms within the habitat.

      2. By offering support and facilities to increase scientific knowledge that will benefit conservation. The expertise of many hundreds of zoologists and veterinarians on the staff of zoos and aquariums represents a considerable potential contribution to the understanding of the biology of species and their relationships to their surroundings. Zoo-acquired knowledge is often crucial to the stimulation of further research in the wild.

      3. By promoting increased public awareness of the need for conservation, particularly via zoo education programs.

      Most important, the World Zoo Conservation Strategy clearly stated that the conservation role of zoos and aquariums must be complimentary to, and not a substitute for, other conservation activities.

      The zoo conservation strategy was launched immediately after the annual meetings of CBSG and IUDZG in Antwerp, Belgium. CBSG reported a particularly busy and productive year. Over 40 workshops and meetings were held between September 1992 and August 1993. IUDZG reported on the expansion of its activities and membership, which stood at over 130 collections and zoo associations. Two problems of immediate concern were debated at some length: the plight of zoos, animals, and professional staff in the increasing number of war-stricken areas of the world and the urgent need to help zoos in countries that lack the resources to maintain their collections at acceptable standards.

      The use of naturalistic enclosures that include the means to stimulate natural behaviours has been shown to improve a zoo animal's welfare and reproductive capacity and enhance the educational value of the exhibit. In recent years many imaginative techniques had been devised to enrich an animal's environment, and the importance of such innovations was being recognized throughout the zoo community. In July the first International Conference on Environmental Enrichment was held at Metro Washington Park Zoo in Portland, Ore., and it proved to be a resounding success, with nearly 200 participants from around the world. The more naturalistic approach was also reflected in the designs of two new zoos—the Monarto Zoological Park (South Australia) and Cameron Park Zoo (Waco, Texas)—and in a number of new exhibits—Eagle Canyon at the Living Desert (Palm Desert, Calif.), the gorilla exhibit at Cleveland (Ohio) Metroparks Zoo, Habitat Africa at Chicago Zoological Park, the pygmy hippopotamus-mandrill exhibit at Melbourne (Australia) Zoo, the Qantas Aviary of the Forest at Auckland (N.Z.) Zoo, and the Bonobo Enclosure at Dierenpark Planckendael (Belgium).

      See also Environment ; Gardening .

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

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