slave code

slave code
In U.S. history, law governing the status of slaves, enacted by those colonies or states that permitted slavery.

Slaves were considered property rather than persons. They had few legal rights: in court, their testimony was inadmissible in cases involving whites; they could make no contract nor own any property; they could not strike a white person, even if attacked by one; they could not be away from their owner's premises without permission; they could not assemble unless a white person was present; they could not be taught to read or write; and they were not permitted to marry. Offenders were subject to severe punishment, including whipping, branding, imprisonment, and death. See also black code.

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▪ United States history
      in U.S. history, any of the set of rules based on the concept that slaves were property, not persons. Inherent in the institution of slavery were certain social controls, which slave owners amplified with laws to protect not only the property but also the property owner from the danger of slave violence. The slave codes were forerunners of the black codes (black code) of the mid-19th century.

       slave rebellions were not unknown, and the possibility of uprisings was a constant source of anxiety in the American colonies—and, later, in the U.S. states—with large slave populations. (In Virginia during 1780–1864, some 1,418 slaves were convicted of crimes; 91 of the convictions were for insurrection and 346 for murder.) Slaves also ran away. In the British possessions in the New World, the settlers were free to promulgate any regulations they saw fit to govern their labour supply. As early as the 17th century, a set of rules was in effect in Virginia and elsewhere; but the slave codes were constantly being altered to adapt to new needs, and they varied from one colony—and, later, one state—to another.

      All the slave codes, however, had certain provisions in common. In all of them the colour line was firmly drawn, and any amount of African heritage established the race of a person as black, with little regard as to whether the person was slave or free. The status of the offspring followed that of the mother, so that the child of a free father and a slave mother was a slave. Slaves had few legal rights: in court their testimony was inadmissible in any litigation involving whites; they could make no contract, nor could they own property; even if attacked, they could not strike a white person. There were numerous restrictions to enforce social control: slaves could not be away from their owner's premises without permission; they could not assemble unless a white person was present; they could not own firearms; they could not be taught to read or write, nor could they transmit or possess “inflammatory” literature; they were not permitted to marry.

      Obedience to the slave codes was exacted in a variety of ways. Such punishments as whipping, branding, and imprisonment were commonly used, but death (which meant destruction of property) was rarely called for except in extreme cases of violence against whites. Slave codes were not always strictly enforced, but, whenever any signs of unrest were detected, the appropriate machinery of the state would be alerted and the laws more strictly enforced.

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Universalium. 2010.

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