Zola, Émile (-Édouard-Charles-Antoine)

Zola, Émile (-Édouard-Charles-Antoine)
born April 2, 1840, Paris, France
died Sept. 28, 1902, Paris

French novelist and critic.

Raised in straitened circumstances, Zola worked at a Paris publishing house for several years during the 1860s while establishing himself as a writer. In the gruesome novel Thérèse Raquin (1867), he put his "scientific" theories of the determination of character by heredity and environment into practice for the first time. These ideas established him as the founder of naturalism in literature. In 1870 he began the ambitious project for which he is best known, the Rougon-Macquart Cycle (1871–93), a sequence of 20 novels documenting French life through the lives of the violent Rougon family and the passive Macquarts. It includes L'Assommoir (1877), a study of alcoholism that is among his most successful and popular novels; Nana (1880); Germinal (1885), his masterpiece; and La Bête humaine (1890). Among his other works are two shorter novel cycles and treatises explaining his theories on art, including The Experimental Novel (1880). He is also notable for his involvement in the Alfred Dreyfus affair, especially for his open letter, "J'accuse" (1898), denouncing the French army general staff. He died under suspicious circumstances, overcome by carbon-monoxide fumes in his sleep.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Zola, Émile (-Édouard-Charles-Antoine) — (2 abr. 1840, París, Francia–28 sep. 1902, París). Novelista y crítico francés. Criado en un barrio obrero en condiciones cercanas a la pobreza, Zola trabajó para una editorial de París durante varios años en la década de 1860, mientras intentaba …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Zola, Émile — Zo·la (zōʹlə, zō läʹ), Émile. 1840 1902. French writer and critic who was a leading proponent of naturalism in fiction. His works include Les Rougon Macquart (1871 1893), a series of 20 novels, and “J Accuse” (1898), a letter in defense of Alfred …   Universalium

  • Charles — /chahrlz/, n. 1. (Prince of Edinburgh and of Wales) born 1948, heir apparent to the throne of Great Britain (son of Elizabeth II). 2. Ray (Ray Charles Robinson), born 1930, U.S. blues singer and pianist. 3. Cape, a cape in E Virginia, N of the… …   Universalium

  • Édouard — (as used in expressions) Daladier Édouard Herriot Édouard Charles Édouard Jeanneret Manet Édouard Rohan Louis René Édouard prince de Édouard Jean Steichen Vuillard Jean Édouard Zola Émile Édouard Charles Antoine * * * …   Universalium

  • Édouard — (as used in expressions) Daladier, Édouard Herriot, Édouard Charles Édouard Jeanneret Manet, Édouard Rohan, Louis René Édouard, príncipe de Édouard Jean Steichen Vuillard, (Jean) Édouard Zola, Émile (Édouard Charles Antoine) …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Antoine — /an twahn/; Fr. /ahonn twannn /, n. 1. André /ahonn drdday /, 1858 1943, French theatrical director, manager, and critic. 2. Père /perdd/ (Francisco Ildefonso Mareno), 1748 1829, Roman Catholic priest in Louisiana: tried to establish an… …   Universalium

  • Émile — Fr. /ay meel /, n. a didactic novel (1762) by J. J. Rousseau, dealing principally with the author s theories of education. * * * (as used in expressions) Baudot Jean Maurice Émile Bazin Henri Émile Borduas Paul Émile Combes Justin Louis Émile… …   Universalium

  • Antoine — (as used in expressions) Barye, Antoine Louis Becquerel, (Antoine) Henri Bougainville, Louis Antoine de Carême, Marie Antoine Charpentier, Marc Antoine Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, marqués de Cournot, Antoine Augustin… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Émile — (as used in expressions) Baudot, (Jean Maurice) Émile Bazin, Henri Émile Borduas, Paul Émile Combes, (Justin Louis) Émile Coué, Émile Durkheim, Émile Gallé, Émile Jaques Dalcroze, Émile Lacan, Jacques (Marie Émile) Massenet, Jules (Émile… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Zola — [zō′lə΄, zō lä′] Émile (Édouard Charles Antoine) [ā mēl′] 1840 1902; Fr. novelist …   English World dictionary

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