Weber, Max

Weber, Max
born April 21, 1864, Erfurt, Prussia
died June 14, 1920, Munich, Ger.

German sociologist and political economist.

Son of a wealthy liberal politician and a Calvinist mother, Weber was a compulsively diligent scholar who suffered occasional nervous collapses. Insights derived from his own experience inform his most famous and controversial work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904–05), which examines the relationship between Calvinist (or Puritan) morality, compulsive labour, bureaucracy, and economic success under capitalism (see Protestant ethic). Weber also wrote penetratingly on social phenomena such as charisma and mysticism, which he saw as antithetical to the modern world and its underlying process of rationalization. His efforts helped establish sociology as an academic discipline in Germany, and his work continues to stimulate scholarship. Through his insistence on the need for objectivity and his analysis of human action in terms of motivation, he profoundly influenced sociological theory. His voluminous writings, mostly published posthumously, include Economy and Society (2 vol., 1922–25) and General Economic History (1923).

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▪ American artist
born April 18, 1881, Białystok, Russian Empire [now in Poland]
died October 4, 1961, Great Neck, New York, U.S.

      Russian-born American painter, printmaker, and sculptor who, through his early abstract works, helped to introduce such avant-garde European art movements as Fauvism and Cubism to the United States.

      Weber immigrated to New York City with his parents in 1891 and studied from 1898 to 1900 at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn with the renowned teacher Arthur Wesley Dow. From 1905 to 1908 he lived in Paris, where he studied at the Académie Julian and with Henri Matisse (Matisse, Henri). While in Paris, Weber became a regular at the salon of Leo and Gertrude Stein (Stein, Gertrude) and formed friendships with the artists Henri Rousseau (Rousseau, Henri) and Pablo Picasso (Picasso, Pablo). Upon returning to New York in 1909, he became part of the city's avant-garde circle and was one of the exhibitors at Alfred Stieglitz's “291” gallery. Between 1909 and 1917 he painted many of his best-known pictures, including the Fauvist-inspired The Geranium (1911) and Chinese Restaurant (1915), a work created in the Synthetic Cubist manner. During this period he favoured subjects such as skyscrapers and city interiors. In his figure studies he expressed the dynamism of the American city by fragmenting objects in motion.

      Weber's work became increasingly representational after 1917, but he continued to be fascinated with the exploration of colour and form. During the last 20 years of his career many of his paintings were based on Jewish subject matter, especially Hasidic themes. Like many immigrant artists during the 1930s, Weber became active in socialist causes and, in 1937, served as national chairman of the American Artists' Congress, an antifascist artists' group. Weber taught at the Art Students League in New York, teaching a painting class that the young Mark Rothko (Rothko, Mark) attended. Weber's publications include Essays on Art (1916) and Primitives (1926).

Additional Reading
Lloyd Goodrich, Max Weber: Retrospective Exhibition (1949); Alfred Werner, Max Weber (1975); Daryl R. Rubenstein, Max Weber: A Catalogue Raisonné of His Graphic Work (1980); Howard E. Wooden, Max Weber: Pioneer of American Modernism (1983); Perry North, Max Weber: The Cubist Decade, 1910–1920 (1991).

▪ German sociologist
born April 21, 1864, Erfurt, Prussia [now Germany]
died June 14, 1920, Munich, Germany
 German sociologist and political economist best known for his thesis of the “ Protestant ethic,” relating Protestantism to capitalism, and for his ideas on bureaucracy. Weber's profound influence on sociological theory stems from his demand for objectivity in scholarship and from his analysis of the motives behind human action.

Early life and family relationships
      Weber was the eldest son of Max and Helene Weber. His father was an aspiring liberal politician who soon joined the more compliant, pro-Bismarckian “National-Liberals” and moved the family from Erfurt to Berlin, where he became a member of the Prussian House of Deputies (1868–97) and the Reichstag (1872–84). The elder Weber established himself as a fixture of the Berlin social milieu and entertained prominent politicians and scholars in the Weber household.

      The sociologist's mother was raised in Calvinist (Calvinism) orthodoxy. Though she gradually accepted a more tolerant theology, her Puritan morality never diminished. As a result, her husband's social activities distanced her from him, especially when he spurned her prolonged grief following the deaths of two of their children. He, in turn, adopted a traditionally authoritarian manner at home and demanded absolute obedience from wife and children. It is thought that this bleak home environment, marked by conflicts between Weber's parents, contributed to the inner agonies that haunted Weber in his adult life.

      Weber left home to enroll at the University of Heidelberg in 1882, interrupting his studies after two years to fulfill his year of military service at Strassburg. During this time he became very close to the family of his mother's sister, Ida Baumgarten, and to her husband, the historian Hermann Baumgarten, who had a profound influence on Weber's intellectual development.

      After his release from the military, however, Weber was asked by his father to finish his studies at the University of Berlin so that he could live at home while pursuing scholarship in legal and economic history. This was perhaps because his father considered the Baumgartens' influence subversive. From 1884 until his marriage in 1893, Weber left the family home only for one semester of study at Göttingen in 1885 and for some brief periods with his military reserve unit.

Early career
      Weber therefore spent most of his formative academic years in his childhood home, where he was continually subject to his parents' conflicting interests. Since he spent his mid- and late 20s working simultaneously in two unpaid apprenticeships—as a lawyer's assistant and as a university assistant—he could not afford to live on his own until the autumn of 1893. At that time he received a temporary position teaching jurisprudence at the University of Berlin and married Marianne Schnitger, a second cousin.

      After his marriage Weber followed a compulsive work regimen that he had begun after his return to Berlin in 1884. Only through such disciplined labour, believed Weber, could he stave off a natural tendency to self-indulgence and laziness, which could lead to an emotional and spiritual crisis.

      Weber's great capacity for disciplined intellectual effort, together with his unquestionable brilliance, led to his meteoric professional advance. One year after his appointment at Berlin, he became a full professor in political economy at Freiburg, and the following year (1896) he attained that position at Heidelberg. Following his doctoral and postdoctoral theses on the agrarian history of ancient Rome and the evolution of medieval trading societies, respectively, Weber wrote a comprehensive analysis of the agrarian problems of eastern Germany for one of the country's most important academic societies, the Union for Social Policy (1890). He also wrote important essays on the German stock exchange and the social decline of Latin antiquity. He was politically active in these years, working with the left-liberal Protestant Social Union.

The Freiburg address
      The high point of his early scholarly career was his inaugural address at Freiburg in 1895, in which he pulled together some five years of study on the agrarian problems of Germany east of the Elbe into a devastating indictment of the ruling Junker aristocracy as historically obsolete. In Weber's view, however, the existing liberal parties were in no position to challenge and replace the Junkers. Nor was the working class ready to accept the responsibilities of power. Only the nation as a whole, educated to political maturity by a conscious policy of overseas imperial expansion, could bring Germany to the level of political maturity attained by the French in the revolutionary and Napoleonic eras and by the British in the course of their imperial expansion in the 19th century. Weber's Freiburg address thus advanced an ideology of “liberal imperialism,” attracting to its support such important liberal publicists as Friedrich Naumann (Naumann, Friedrich) and Hans Delbrück.

      In the months following his father's death in August 1897, an increasing nervousness plagued the young scholar. His return to teaching in the autumn brought a brief respite, which ended in early 1898 with the first signs of the nervous collapse that would incapacitate him between mid-1898 and 1903. For five years he was intermittently institutionalized, suffering sudden relapses after slow recoveries and vain efforts to break such cycles by traveling. He resigned his professorship at Heidelberg at the height of his illness.

Later works
      In 1903 Weber was able to resume scholarly work, and an inheritance in 1907 made him financially independent. He did not teach again until after World War I. The nature of his most important work after his partial recovery suggests that his prolonged agony had led him to develop brilliant insights into the relationship of Calvinist morality and compulsive labour, into the relationship between various religious ethics and social and economic processes, and into many other questions of lasting importance. Indeed, Weber produced his most important work in the 17 years between the worst part of his illness and his death.

      Weber's intellectual breadth in the study of societies can hardly be overestimated; it surpassed that of his predecessors, mainly Karl Marx (Marx, Karl) and Émile Durkheim (Durkheim, Émile). Dissatisfied with the intellectual traditions of the social sciences and law in German and Western universities, Weber sought to develop a scientific approach that overcame their deficiencies. Although he never fully defined a systematic research program explaining his comparative methodology, his essays on the historical development of Eastern and Western societies suggest what such an approach might entail. Weber demonstrated that the comparative method was essential because the behaviour of institutions in societies could not be understood in isolation. (Even his popular work on the connection between Puritanism and the development of capitalism in the West cannot be fully understood without reference to his work on comparative institutions—e.g., his studies of Asiatic religions and ancient Judaism.)

      In preparation for work that he contemplated but never completed, Weber developed the ideal type as a methodological tool for comparative sociology. In analyzing the history of Western societies, Weber focused on Rationalism as a unique and central force shaping all Western institutions, including economics, politics, religion, family, stratification systems, and music. These typologies have had a decisive impact on the development of subsequent, more specialized sociological inquiries.

      A brief glance at Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus (1904–05; The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism), Weber's best known and most controversial work, illustrates the general trend of his thinking. Weber began by noting the statistical correlation in Germany between interest and success in capitalist ventures on the one hand and Protestant background on the other. He then attributed this relationship between capitalism and Protestantism to certain accidental psychological consequences of the notions of predestination and calling in Puritan theology.

      In Calvin's (Calvinism) formulation the doctrine of predestination stated that sinful humanity could know neither why nor to whom God had extended the grace of salvation. Weber inferred that the psychological insecurity that this doctrine imposed on Calvin's followers, stern believers in hellfire, was such that they began to look for signs indicating the direction of God's will in daily life. The consequence was an ethic of unceasing commitment to one's worldly calling (any lapse would indicate that one's state of grace was in doubt) and ascetic (asceticism) abstinence from any enjoyment of the profit reaped from such labours. The practical result of such beliefs and practices was, in Weber's estimation, the most rapid possible accumulation of capital.

      Weber had published his thesis on the Protestant ethic in the journal he had just begun to edit, Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik. From 1905 to 1910 he published a number of exchanges between himself and critics of his thesis in the Archiv. He never denied his critics' claims that highly developed capitalist enterprises existed centuries before Calvin. Weber was also aware of other preconditions, both material and psychological, that contributed to the development of modern capitalism. He responded to these criticisms by arguing that, before Calvinism, capitalist enterprise and wealth accumulation were always fettered by the passive or active hostility of the prevalent religious order. If some capitalists were, by virtue of their skepticism, able to escape the guilt feelings that the prevailing religious ethos dictated, it was nevertheless a fact that no other religious tradition had ever caused people to see the accumulation of capital (saving money) as a sign of God's everlasting grace.

      The Puritans, Weber argued, had accepted the cloak of worldly asceticism voluntarily, as a means of alleviating otherwise unbearable spiritual burdens. In so doing, however, they helped to create the enormous structure of the modern economic institution, which proceeded to determine the life and values of everyone born into it.

      Around the time he published his work on the Protestant ethic, the middle-class German culture in which Weber had been nurtured experienced its first spasms of disintegration. The Protestant morality that he had come to accept as inescapable destiny came under attack from the youth movement, from avant-garde literary circles such as the one centred on the poet Stefan George (George, Stefan), from Neoromantics influenced by Friedrich Nietzsche (Nietzsche, Friedrich) and Sigmund Freud (Freud, Sigmund), and from Slavic cultural ideals, exemplified in the works of Leo Tolstoy (Tolstoy, Leo) and Fyodor Dostoyevsky (Dostoyevsky, Fyodor). In this setting Weber developed his political sociology, which makes the crucial distinction between charismatic, traditional, and legal forms of authority.

      Charismatic authority, or charisma, refers to the gift of spiritual inspiration underlying the power of religious prophets or extraordinary political leaders. In probing charisma Weber touched, sometimes explicitly, on themes that had first been broached by Nietzsche. His acute interest in social phenomena such as mysticism, which are antithetical to the modern world and its underlying process of rationalization, paralleled a late awakening of Weber's aesthetic and erotic faculties. In 1910, amid the crumbling social order of European middle-class society, Weber began a series of important discussions with George and his close disciple, the poet Friedrich Gundolf. At roughly the same time, Weber began an extramarital affair, probably his first experience of sexual intimacy; one of his most brilliant later essays ( "Theorie der Stufen und Richtungen religioser Weltablehnung," 1916; “Religious Rejections of the World and Their Directions”) contains an analysis of the conflicting relationships between eroticism, ascetic and mystical modes of religiosity, and the general process of rationalization.

      During this same period Weber attempted to build respect for sociology as a discipline by defining a value-free methodology for it and by analyzing the religious cultures of India and China for comparison with the Western religious tradition. Also of critical importance in his last decade was his stoic examination of the conditions and consequences of the rationalization of political and economic life in the West in Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft (1922; Economy and Society) and journal articles.

      Indeed, Weber's most powerful impact on his contemporaries came in the last years of his life, when, from 1916 to 1918, he argued powerfully against Germany's annexationist war goals and in favour of a strengthened parliament. He stood bravely for sobriety in politics and scholarship against the apocalyptic mood of right-wing students in the months following Germany's defeat in World War I. After assisting in the drafting of the new constitution and in the founding of the German Democratic Party, Weber died of a lung infection in June 1920.

      Weber's significance during his lifetime was considerable among German social scientists, many of whom were his friends in Heidelberg or Berlin; but because so little of his work was published in book form during his lifetime, and because most of the journals in which he published had restricted audiences of scholarly specialists, his major impact was not felt until after his death. The only exceptions were his formulation of “liberal imperialism” in 1895, his widely discussed thesis on Protestantism and capitalism, and his extensive attack on German foreign and domestic policies during World War I in the pages of the Frankfurter Zeitung, which stimulated liberal sentiment against the government's war aims and led General Erich Ludendorff (Ludendorff, Erich) to view Weber as a traitor.

      In general, Weber's greatest merit as a thinker was that he brought the social sciences in Germany, hitherto preoccupied largely with national problems, into direct critical confrontation with the international giants of 19th-century European thought—Marx and Nietzsche (Nietzsche, Friedrich); and, through this confrontation, Weber helped create a methodology and a body of literature dealing with the sociology of religion, political parties, and the economy, as well as studies of formal organizations, small-group behaviour, and the philosophy of history. His work continues to stimulate scholarship.

Arthur Mitzman Ed.

Major Works
Die römische Agrargeschichte in ihrer Bedeutung für das Staats- und Privatrecht (1891); Wirtschaftsgeschichte (1923; General Economic History, trans. by Frank H. Knight, 1927). After the death of Max Weber, his widow, Marianne Weber, collected and edited his other writings as follows: Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Religionssoziologie, 3 vol. (1920–21), containing vol. 1, Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus. Die protestantischen Sekten und der Geist des Kapitalismus. Die Wirtschaftsethik der Weltreligionen; vol. 2, Hinduismus und Buddhismus; and vol. 3, Das antike Judentum; translations (from vol. 1) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, trans. by Talcott Parsons (1930), and The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism, trans. and ed. by Hans H. Gerth (1951); (from vol. 2) The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism, trans. and ed. by Hans H. Gerth and Don Martindale (1958); (from vol. 3) Ancient Judaism, trans. and ed. by Hans H. Gerth and Don Martindale (1952); Gesammelte politische Schriften (1921); Die rationalen und soziologischen Grundlagen der Musik (1921); The Rational and Social Foundations of Music (1958); Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft (1922, 2 vol. 1925), part one, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, trans. by A.M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons (1947); Max Weber on Law in Economy and Society, trans. of selected passages ed. by Max Rheinstein (1954); The Sociology of Religion, trans. of vol. 2, ch. 4 (1963); from Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, Basic Concepts in Sociology, trans. by H.P. Secher (1962); Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretative Sociology, a new and complete translation of Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, ed. by Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich, 3 vol. (1968); Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Wissenschaftslehre (1922); Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Soziologie und Sozialpolitik (1924); Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte (1924); Schriften zur theoretischen Soziologie, zur Soziologie der Politik und Verfassung (1947); Aus den Schriften zur Religionssoziologie (1948). Other translations: From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, trans. and ed. by H.H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (1946), containing essays first written or published between 1906 and 1924; Max Weber on the Methodology of the Social Sciences, trans. and ed. by Edward A. Shils and Henry A. Finch (1949), containing three essays, two of which were published in the Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik (1904 and 1905), and a third essay first published in Logos (1917); The City, trans. of Die Stadt, ed. by Don Martindale and Getrud Neuwirth (1958); On Charisma and Institution Building: selected papers, ed. by S.N. Eisenstadt (1968).

Additional Reading
Biographical sources on Weber include Marianne Weber, Max Weber: Ein Lebensbild (1926, reissued 1989), and Max Weber: A Biography (1975, reprinted 1988); Eduard Baumgarten, Max Weber: Werk und Person (1964); and Paul Honigsheim, On Max Weber (1968). An attempt to correlate Weber's personal and historical situation with his work is Arthur Mitzman, The Iron Cage (1970, reprinted 1985). Good presentations of Weber's ideas may be found in Reinhard Bendix, Max Weber: An Intellectual Portrait (1960, reissued 1998); Julien Freund, The Sociology of Max Weber (1968; originally published in French, 1966); Ilse Dronberger, The Political Thought of Max Weber: In Quest of Statesmanship (1971); and Richard Swedberg, Max Weber and the Idea of Economic Sociology (1998). A systematic outline of Weber's methodological approach is defined in Stephen Kalberg, Max Weber's Comparative-Historical Sociology (1994). A brief overview of Weber's many works is provided by Randall Collins, Max Weber: A Skeleton Key (1986).

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Universalium. 2010.

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