Ungaretti, Giuseppe

Ungaretti, Giuseppe
born Feb. 10, 1888, Alexandria, Egypt
died June 1, 1970, Milan, Italy

Egyptian-Italian poet.

He lived in Alexandria until he was 24, and the desert regions of Egypt provide recurring images in his work. While studying in Paris, he was strongly influenced by the poets of the Symbolist movement. He was the founder of Hermeticism, which began with his Il porto sepolto (1916; "The Buried Port") and brought about a reorientation in modern Italian poetry. Though experimental, his poetry developed in a coherent direction in Allegria di naufragi (1919; "Gay Shipwrecks") and later collections. After World War II his works became more structured and acquired a more straightforward tone.

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▪ Italian poet
born Feb. 10, 1888, Alexandria
died June 1, 1970, Milan

      Italian poet, founder of the Hermetic movement (see Hermeticism) that brought about a reorientation in modern Italian poetry.

      Born in Egypt of parents who were Italian settlers, Ungaretti lived in Alexandria until he was 24; the desert regions of Egypt were to provide recurring images in his later work. He went to Paris in 1912 to study at the Sorbonne and became close friends with the poets Guillaume Apollinaire, Charles Péguy, and Paul Valéry and the then avant-garde artists Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and Fernand Léger. Contact with French Symbolist poetry, particularly that of Stéphane Mallarmé, was one of the most important influences of his life.

      At the outbreak of World War I, Ungaretti enlisted in the Italian Army, and while on the battlefield he wrote his first volume of poetry, each poem dated individually as if it were to be his last. These poems, published in Il porto sepolto (1916; “The Buried Port”), used neither rhyme, punctuation, nor traditional form; this was Ungaretti's first attempt to strip ornament from words and to present them in their purest, most evocative form. Though reflecting the experimental attitude of the Futurists, Ungaretti's poetry developed in a coherent and original direction, as is apparent in Allegria di naufragi (1919; “Gay Shipwrecks”), which shows the influence of Giacomo Leopardi and includes revised poems from Ungaretti's first volume.

      Further change is evident in Sentimento del tempo (1933; “The Feeling of Time”), which, containing poems written between 1919 and 1932, used more obscure language and difficult symbolism.

      Ungaretti went to South America for a cultural conference and from 1936 to 1942 taught Italian literature at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. His nine-year-old son died in Brazil, and Ungaretti's anguish over his loss as well as his sorrow over the atrocities of Nazism and World War II are expressed in the poems Il dolore (1947; “Grief ”). In 1942 Ungaretti returned to Italy and taught contemporary Italian literature at the University of Rome until his retirement in 1957. Important volumes published during this time are La terra promessa (1950; “The Promised Land”) and Un grido e paesaggi (1952). Among his later volumes were Il taccuino del vecchio (1960; “An Old Man's Notebook”) and Morte delle stagioni (1967; “Death of the Seasons”).

      Ungaretti also translated into Italian Racine's Phèdre, a collection of Shakespeare's sonnets, and works of Luis de Góngora y Argote, Stéphane Mallarmé, and William Blake; all were later incorporated in Traduzioni, 2 vol. (1946–50). An English translation of Ungaretti's poetry is Allen Mandelbaum's Selected Poems of Giuseppe Ungaretti (1975).

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Universalium. 2010.

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