Song dynasty

Song dynasty
or Sung dynasty

(960–1279) Chinese dynasty that united the entire country until 1127 and the southern portion until 1279, during which time northern China was controlled by the Juchen tribes.

During the Song, commerce flourished, paper currency came into increasing use, and several cities boasted populations exceeding one million people. Wang Anshi worked for more equitable taxation and state-centred solutions for China's problems. Widespread printing brought increased literacy and a broader elite, and private academies and state schools sent increasing numbers of candidates through the Chinese examination system. In the 12th century, Zhu Xi systemized Neo-Confucianism. The Song was also an era of scholarship: groundbreaking treatises on architecture and botany were published, as was the famous history Zizhi tongjian ("Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government") of Sima Guang. Landscape painting is said to have reached its peak during the Northern Song, which was also famous for its magnificent architecture. See also Taizu.

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▪ Chinese history

      (960–1279), Chinese dynasty that ruled the country during one of its most brilliant cultural epochs. It is commonly divided into Bei (Northern) and Nan (Southern) Song periods, as the dynasty ruled only in South China after 1127.

      The Bei Song was founded by Zhao Kuangyin, the military inspector general of the Hou (Later) Zhou dynasty (last of the Five Dynasties), who usurped control of the empire in a coup. Thereafter, he used his mastery of diplomatic maneuvering to persuade powerful potential rivals to exchange their power for honours and sinecures, and he proceeded to become an admirable emperor (known as Taizu, his temple name). He set the nation on a course of sound administration by instituting a competent and pragmatic civil service; he followed Confucian principles, lived modestly, and took the country's finest military units under his personal command. Before his death he had begun an expansion into the small Ten Kingdoms of southern China.

      Taizu's successors maintained an uneasy peace with the menacing Liao (Liao dynasty) kingdom of the Khitan to the north. Over time, the quality of the bureaucracy deteriorated, and when the Juchen (Chinese: Nüzhen, or Ruzhen)—tribes from the North who overthrew the Liao—burst into the northern Song state, it was easy prey. The Juchen took over the North and established a dynasty with a Chinese name, the Jin (Jin dynasty). But they were unable to take those regions of Song territory south of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang).

      In the South, the climate and the beautiful surroundings were the setting for the Nan Song dynasty established (1127) by the emperor Gaozong. He chose a capital he called Lin'an (present-day Hangzhou (Hankou)) and set about maintaining defenses against the hostile North and restoring imperial authority in the hinterland. Gaozong was a conscious admirer and emulator of the highly successful approach of the Han dynasty to the management of civil service, and the empire's bureaucrats long functioned well. In due course, however, the dynasty began to decline. But the eventual fall of the Song dynasty was neither sudden nor a collapse upon itself such as had ended several of its predecessors. The Mongols, under Genghis Khan, began their move on China with an assault on the Jin state in the North in 1211. After their eventual success in the North and several decades of uneasy coexistence with the Song, the Mongols—under Genghis Khan's grandsons—advanced on the Song forces in 1250. The Song forces fought on until 1276, when their capital fell. The dynasty finally ended in 1279 with the destruction of the Song fleet near Guangzhou (Canton) (Canton).

      During the Song period, commerce developed to an unprecedented extent; trade guilds were organized, paper currency came into increasing use, and several cities with populations of more than 1,000,000 flourished along the principal waterways and the southeast coast. Widespread printing of the Confucian Classics and the use of movable type, beginning in the 11th century, brought literature and learning to the people. Flourishing private academies and state schools graduated increasing numbers of competitors for the civil service examinations. The administration developed a comprehensive welfare policy that made this one of the most humane periods in Chinese history. In the works of the 12th-century philosophers Zhu Xi and Lu Jiuyuan, Neo-Confucianism was systematized into a coherent doctrine.

      The Song dynasty is particularly noted for the great artistic achievements that it encouraged and, in part, subsidized. The Bei Song dynasty at Bianjing had begun a renewal of Buddhism and of literature and the arts. The greatest poets and painters in the empire were in attendance at court. The last of the Northern Song emperors was himself perhaps the most noteworthy artist and art collector in the country. His capital at Kaifeng was a city of beauty, abounding in palaces, temples, and tall pagodas when, in 1126, the Juchen burned it. The architecture of the Song era was noted for its tall structures; the highest pagoda at Bianjing was 360 feet (110 metres). Song architects curved the eave line of roofs upward at the corners. Pagodas, six- or eight-sided and built of brick or wood, still survive from the period.

      The sculpture of the Song period continued to emphasize representations of the Buddha, and in that genre there were no substantive improvements over the work of Song sculptors in succeeding dynasties. Landscape painting was one of the outstanding arts of the Bei Song, and its most noted figures were Fan Kuan and Li Cheng. In the Nan Song many great painters served at the Hanlin Academy, becoming noted for brush effects, miniatures, and, under Chan (Zen) influence, paintings of Buddhist deities, animals, and birds.

      In the decorative arts the Song dynasty marked a high point in Chinese pottery. Song wares are noted for their simplicity of shape and the purity of colour and tone of their glazes. From the Bei Song came Ding, Ru, Zhun, Cizhou, northern celadon, and brown and black glazed wares; from the Nan Song came Jingdezhen whiteware, Jizhou wares, celadons, and the black pottery of Fujian. Pottery produced at the Guan kilns, near the Nan Song capital, was the finest of an enormous number of celadons of the dynasty.

      The tendency of Song jade carvers to adopt old lines and techniques makes difficult the accurate dating of jades that may be from the Song, and it has been similarly difficult to place Song lacquerware.

      In music the Bei Song adopted a two-stringed fiddle from the northern tribes, and music was widely used for ceremonies, sacrifices, and other court events. Music attracted considerable attention in the dynasty's enormous works of literature: the official history of the dynasty devoted 17 of its 496 chapters to musical events, and an encyclopaedia that appeared in 1267 has 10 of 200 chapters on the subject of music. Music drama flourished throughout the Song, and distinctly different styles evolved in the North and the South. The literature of the Song dynasty emphasized a return to old-time simplicity of expression in prose, and short tales called Guwen were written in great volume. A school of oral storytelling in the vernacular arose, and conventional poetry enjoyed wide cultivation. Song poets achieved their greatest distinction, however, in the new genre of the ci, sung poems of joy and despair. These poems became the literary hallmark of the dynasty. For the diversity and richness of its cultural achievements, the Song dynasty is remembered as one of China's greatest.

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Universalium. 2010.

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