- Scaevola, Quintus Mucius
or Pontifexdied 82 BCRoman lawgiver.He served successively as consul, as governor of the province of Asia, and from с 89 as pontifex maximus. About 95 he obtained the passage of the lex Licinia Mucia, removing certain groups from the citizen rolls, which led to the Social War of 90–88. His major work was an 80-volume systematic treatise on civil law, which was frequently quoted and followed by subsequent writers. His handbook Horoi consisted of short rules of law and explanations of legal terms; it was the oldest work excerpted in Justinian I's Digest.
* * *▪ Roman juristalso called Augurdied 88 BCprominent Roman jurist. He was the cousin of Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex, who founded the scientific study of Roman law.Instructed in law by his father and in philosophy by the stoic Panaetius of Rhodes, Scaevola became governor of the province of Asia about 120. Although accused of extortion on his return to Rome, he defended himself successfully and was elected consul in 117. He developed a high regard for the powerful general Gaius Marius and voted against Sulla's motion to declare Marius a public enemy (88). In his last years Scaevola taught law to Cicero (Cicero, Marcus Tullius), who became one of Rome's greatest orators. Scaevola is one of the interlocutors in Cicero's De oratore (“On Oratory”), De amicitia (“On Friendship”), and De republica (“On the Republic”).▪ Roman law scholaralso called Pontifexdied 82 BCfounder of the scientific study of Roman law.As consul in 95 Scaevola and his colleague obtained the passage of the Lex Licinia Mucia, which removed certain groups not amalgamated into the Roman Republic (the so-called Latin and Italian allies) from the citizen rolls. The unrest created by this measure exploded in the Social (Italic) War of 90–88. After his consulship Scaevola was governor of the province of Asia. In this position he punished farmers who defaulted on their tax payments and issued an edict on provincial administration that became a model for later governors. About 89 he was appointed pontifex maximus. Though not himself religious, he regulated the priestly colleges and insisted on observance of the traditional rituals.Scaevola was the author of an 80-volume systematic treatise on civil law, a compilation of legislative enactments, judicial precedents, and passages from older collections that was frequently quoted and followed by subsequent writers. In addition, he wrote a small handbook called Horoi (“Definitions”), consisting of short rules of law and explanations of legal terms; it was to be the oldest work excerpted in the Byzantine emperor Justinian I's Digest. He was killed in the massacres directed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in his struggle against Gaius Marius for imperial power.
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