Philippine-American War

Philippine-American War
or Philippine Insurrection

(1899–1902) War between the U.S. and Filipino revolutionaries, which may be seen as a continuation of the Philippine Revolution against Spanish rule.

The Treaty of Paris (1898), which concluded the Spanish-American War, transferred Philippine sovereignty from Spain to the U.S.; but it was not recognized by Filipino leaders, whose troops controlled the entire archipelago except the capital city of Manila. By 1902 U.S. troops had defeated the insurgency, though sporadic fighting continued until 1906. The U.S. retained possession of the islands (except for the Japanese occupation during World War II) until 1946.

* * *

▪ Filipino history
 a war between the United States and Filipino revolutionaries from 1899 to 1902; the insurrection may be seen as a continuation of the Philippine Revolution against Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris (Paris, Treaty of) (1898) transferred Philippine sovereignty from Spain to the United States but was not recognized by Filipino leaders, whose troops were in actual control of the entire archipelago except the capital city of Manila. Although an end to the insurrection was declared in 1902, sporadic fighting continued for several years thereafter.

      Commodore George Dewey (Dewey, George) defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay on the morning of May 1, 1898, but could not occupy Manila until ground troops arrived three months later. On August 13 Manila fell after a bloodless “battle.” Spanish Governor Fermín Jáudenes had secretly arranged a surrender after a mock show of resistance to salvage his honour. With American troops in possession of the city and Filipino insurgents controlling the rest of the country, conflict was inevitable.

      The war began with shooting on the outskirts of Manila on the night of Feb. 4, 1899. Throughout the spring of 1899, American troops pushed north into the central Luzon Plain, and by the end of that year the Filipino general Emilio Aguinaldo retreated into the inaccessible northern mountains. The period of conventional battles ended, but insurgent leaders in many provinces continued bitter guerrilla warfare.

      Fighting flared with increased bitterness on the island of Samar in 1901. General Jacob F. Smith, enraged by a guerrilla massacre of U.S. troops, launched a retaliatory campaign of such indiscriminate ferocity that he was court-martialed and forced to retire.

      After 1902 the American civil government regarded the remaining guerrillas as mere bandits, though the fighting continued. About 1,000 guerrillas under Simeón Ola were not defeated until late 1903, and in Batangas province, south of Manila, troops commanded by Macario Sakay resisted capture until as late as 1906.

      The last organized resistance to U.S. power took place on Samar from 1904 to 1906. There, the rebels' tactic of burning pacified villages contributed to their own defeat. The United States gained an undisputed control of the Philippines and retained possession of the islands until 1946.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Нужно сочинение?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Philippine–American War — ] cite news first =Ambeth R. last =Ocampo year =2005 month =January 7 title =The First Filipino Novel journal =Philippine Daily Inquirer] cite web title =Chronology of Significant Events Relating to the Career of Emilio Aguinaldo with Respect to… …   Wikipedia

  • Philippine-American War — war fought from 1899 1904 between the United States and the Philippines as a result of an American attempt to colonize the islands …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Timeline of Philippine–American War — 1898= May* May 1 First battle of the Spanish American War: Admiral George Dewey destroys the Spanish fleet at Battle of Manila Bay.* May 19 Emilio Aguinaldo returns to the Philippines from exile in Hong Kong where he had been since the failure of …   Wikipedia

  • List of Philippine-American War Medal of Honor recipients — This is a list of United States military personnel who received the Medal of Honor for their actions during the Philippine American War.The Philippine American War [This conflict is also known as the Philippine Insurrection . This name was… …   Wikipedia

  • Battles of the Philippine–American War — This is a list of battles of the Philippine American War.*Battle of Manila (February 4 ndash; February 5, 1899) American and Filipino forces clash for the first time, as the Americans drive the Filipino army out of the Manila area. *Battle of… …   Wikipedia

  • Spanish–American War — Warbox|conflict=Spanish American War caption= Charge of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill by Frederic Remington date=April 25 ndash; August 12, 1898 place=Caribbean Sea: Cuba, Puerto Rico; Pacific Ocean: Guam, Philippine Islands casus=Cuban War… …   Wikipedia

  • Mexican–American War — Mexican–American War …   Wikipedia

  • Spanish-American War — (1898)    A conflict marking the beginning of American imperialism. As Secretary of State John Hay put it, the conflict was indeed, in many respects, a “splendid little war,” in that it was popular, short, and relatively cheap; it brought easy… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Battles of the Spanish–American War — The following are known Battles of the Spanish American War... This list includes all major engagements and most reported skirmishes of the Spanish American War. Some items, such as the claim by Puerto Ricans that Spanish guns in San Juan fired… …   Wikipedia

  • Spanish-American War Campaigns — Spanish American War Introduction *Adm. Cervera s fleet had taken refuge (29 May 1898) in Santiago Bay, and the American Navy had asked the Army to reduce the defenses guarding the entrance. The War Department, eager to get the Army into action,… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”