Persian language

Persian language
or Farsi language

Iranian language spoken by more than 25 million people in Iran as a first language, and by millions more as a second.

Modern Persian is a koine developed from southwestern dialects in the 7th–9th centuries, after the introduction of Islam brought a massive infusion of loanwords from Arabic. Its standardization and literary cultivation took place in northeastern Persia and Central Asia in the 11th–12th centuries. Polities outside Persia itself (e.g., Mughal India, Ottoman Turkey) have at times been major literary centres. Its status in those countries led to a very strong Persian influence on Urdu and Ottoman Turkish. Other Turkic and Indo-Aryan languages, Caucasian languages, and Iranian languages have also borrowed heavily from Persian. It is written in a slightly modified form of the Arabic alphabet.

* * *

also called  Fārsī,  

      member of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian language family; it is the official language of Iran. It is most closely related to Middle and Old Persian, former languages of the region of Fārs (“Persia”) in southwestern Iran. Modern Persian is thus called Fārsī by native speakers. Written in Arabic (Arabic language) characters, modern Persian also has many Arabic loanwords and an extensive literature.

      Old Persian, spoken until approximately the 3rd century BC, is attested by numerous inscriptions written in cuneiform, most notable of which is the great monument of Darius I at Bīsitūn, Iran. The inscriptions at Bīsitūn were generally trilingual—in Old Persian, Elamite, and Akkadian.

      Middle Persian, spoken from the 3rd century BC to the 9th century AD, is represented by numerous epigraphic texts of Sāsānian kings, written in Aramaic script; there is also a varied literature in Middle Persian embracing both the Zoroastrian and the Manichaean religious traditions. Pahlavi was the name of the official Middle Persian language of the Sāsānian empire.

      Modern Persian grammar is in many ways much simpler than its ancestral forms, having lost most of the inflectional (inflection) systems of the older varieties of Persian. Other than markers to indicate that nouns and pronouns are direct objects, Modern Persian has no system of case inflections. Possession is shown by addition of a special suffix (called the ezāfeh) to the possessed noun. Verbs retain a set of personal endings related to those of other Indo-European languages, but a series of prefixes and infixes (word elements inserted within a word), as well as auxiliary verbs, are used instead of a single complex inflectional system in order to mark tense, mood, voice, and the negative.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Persian language — Farsi redirects here. For other uses, see Farsi (disambiguation). Persian فارسی, دری, تاجیکی Wri …   Wikipedia

  • Old Persian language — Old Persian Spoken in Ancient Iran Era Ancestor of Middle Persian Language family Indo European Indo Iranian …   Wikipedia

  • Academy of Persian Language and Literature — Iran s Academy of Persian Language and Literature (Persian:فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی, pronounced|farhangestɒn e zabɒn o adab e fɒrsi) is a body controlled by the Iranian government presiding over the use of the Persian language in Iran and other …   Wikipedia

  • Encyclopaedia of Persian Language and Literature — The Encyclopaedia of Persian Language and Literature is a Persian language encyclopaedia, published in Tehran.External links* [ daneshname.htm Encyclopaedia of Persian Language and Literature] Firouz Hejazi, writer of… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Persian language magazines — This is a list of magazines published in the Persian language: Name Date Topic External Link Gooya biweekly magazine published in the UAE Javanan Largest Circulated Persian Magazine (Iranian Magazine) in the world.100 page color weekly based in… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Persian language television channels — This is a list of Persian language television channels: *AFN TV *Amoozesh TV Network *Andisheh TV *Appadana International *Arya TV *Ariana Afghanistan TV *Ariana Television Network *Azarbayjan e Gharbi TV *Azarbayjan e Sharghi TV *Channel One… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Persian language authors — List of Persian language authorsNotable Persian writers, poets and novelists:*Amir Khusro *Farid al Din Attar *Firdausi *Rumi *Hafiz *Sa di *Sadeq Hedayat *Simin Daneshvar *Sohrab Sepehri *Majid M. Naini *Omar Khayyam *Forough Farrokhzad *More at …   Wikipedia

  • Persian literature — (PerB|ادبیات پارسی) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre Islamic material has been lost. Its sources often come from far flung regions beyond the borders of present day Iran, as the Persian language flourished and survives… …   Wikipedia

  • Persian studies — is the study of the Persian language and its literature specifically. It is differentiated from Iranian Studies which is a broader, more interdisciplinary subject that focuses more on the histories and cultures of all Iranian peoples. History of… …   Wikipedia

  • Persian grammar — is similar to many other Indo European languages, especially those in the Indo Iranian family. Since Middle Persian it has had a relatively simple grammar, having no grammatical gender and few case markings.Word OrderWhile Persian has a Subject… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”