Muybridge, Eadweard

Muybridge, Eadweard
orig. Edward James Muggeridge

born April 9, 1830, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, Eng.
died May 8, 1904, Kingston upon Thames

English photographer.

He immigrated to the U.S. from England as a young man, and in 1868 his photos of Yosemite Valley made him famous. Hired by Leland Stanford to photograph a trotting horse in motion, to test Stanford's contention that it lifted all four legs simultaneously, he developed a special fast shutter for his battery of 12 to 24 cameras, and in 1877 he proved Stanford right. He lectured widely on animal locomotion, illustrating his lectures with his zoopraxiscope, a predecessor of the movie projector. His extensive photographic studies of human movement (1884–87) have been useful to artists and scientists.

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▪ British photographer
original name  Edward James Muggeridge  
born April 9, 1830, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, Eng.
died May 8, 1904, Kingston upon Thames
 English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion and in motion-picture projection.

      He adopted the name Eadweard Muybridge, believing it to be the original Anglo-Saxon form of his name. He emigrated to the United States as a young man but remained obscure until 1868, when his large photographs of Yosemite Valley, California, made him world famous.

      Muybridge's experiments in photographing motion began in 1872, when the railroad magnate Leland Stanford hired him to prove that during a particular moment in a trotting horse's gait all four legs are off the ground simultaneously. His first efforts were unsuccessful because his camera lacked a fast shutter. The project was then interrupted while Muybridge was being tried for the murder of his wife's lover. Although he was acquitted, he found it expedient to travel for a number of years in Mexico and Central America, making publicity photographs for the Union Pacific Railroad, a company owned by Stanford.

      In 1877 he returned to California and resumed his experiments in motion photography, using a battery of from 12 to 24 cameras and a special shutter he developed that gave an exposure of 2/1,000 of a second. This arrangement gave satisfactory results and proved Stanford's contention.

      The results of Muybridge's work were widely published, most often in the form of line drawings taken from his photographs. They were criticized, however, by those who thought that horse's legs could never assume such unlikely positions. To counter such criticism, Muybridge gave lectures on animal locomotion throughout the United States and Europe. These lectures were illustrated with a zoopraxiscope, a lantern he developed that projected images in rapid succession onto a screen from photographs printed on a rotating glass disc, producing the illusion of moving pictures. The zoopraxiscope display, an important predecessor of the modern cinema, was a sensation at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago.

      Muybridge made his most important photographic studies of motion from 1884 to 1887 under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania. These consisted of photographs of various activities of human figures, clothed and naked, which were to form a visual compendium of human movements for the use of artists and scientists. Many of these photographs were published in 1887 in the portfolio “Animal Locomotion, An Electro-Photographic Investigation of Consecutive Phases of Animal Movement.” Muybridge continued to publicize and publish his work until 1900, when he retired to his birthplace.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Muybridge,Eadweard — Muy·bridge (mīʹbrĭj ), Eadweard. Originally Edward James Muggeridge. 1830 1904. British born American motion picture pioneer, particularly noted for his series of photographs of horses in motion, taken by a set of still cameras. * * * …   Universalium

  • Muybridge, Eadweard — orig. Edward James Muggeridge (9 abr. 1830, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, Inglaterra–8 may.1904, Kingston upon Thames). Fotógrafo inglés. De joven emigró a EE.UU. y en 1868 se consagró con sus fotografías del valle Yosemite. Posteriormente,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Muybridge, Eadweard — soprannome di Muggeridge Muybridge, Edward …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • Muybridge , Eadweard James — (1830–1904) American photographer Muybridge was born Edward James Muggeridge at Kingston on Thames in Surrey. He changed his surname and forename in his early twenties, the latter after the Saxon kings who were crowned at Kingston in the 10th… …   Scientists

  • Muybridge, Eadweard — (9.4.1830 8.5.1904) eigentlich Edward James Muggeridge, amerikanischer Fotograf englischer Herkunft, wanderte 1852 in die USA aus, wo er sich schnell als Landschaftsfotograf einen Namen machte. Bekannt sind heute vor allem seine ab 1872 gemachten …   Das Lexikon aus „Bernie's Foto-Programm"

  • Eadweard Muybridge — Birth name Edward James Muggeridge Born April 9, 1830(1830 04 09) Kingston upon …   Wikipedia

  • Eadweard Muybridge — Eadweard Muybridge, né Edward James Muggeridge, à Kingston upon Thames, dans la banlieue de Londres, le 9 avril 1830, mort le 8 mai 1904 (à 74 ans), est un photographe …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Eadweard James Muybridge — Eadweard Muybridge Eadweard Muybridge …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Muybridge — Eadweard Muybridge Eadweard Muybridge …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Eadweard Muybridge — (* 9. April 1830 in Kingston upon Thames, England; † 8. Mai 1904 ebenda; eigentlich Edward James Muggeridge) war ein britischer Fotograf und Pionier der Fototechnik. Er gilt – neben Étienne Jules Marey und …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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