- Longstreet, James
born , Jan. 8, 1821, Edgefield District, S.C., U.S.died Jan. 2, 1904, Gainesville, Ga.U.S. army officer.He graduated from West Point but resigned from the U.S. Army when South Carolina seceded. Appointed brigadier general in the Confederate army, he fought in the battles of Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. He was second in command to Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg, where his delay in attacking contributed to the Confederate defeat. He later directed the Confederate attack at Chickamauga. He was badly wounded in the Battle of the Wilderness but later resumed his command. He surrendered with Lee at Appomattox Court House. He later served as U.S. minister to Turkey (1880–81) and commissioner of Pacific railways (1898–1904).
* * *▪ Confederate generalborn , Jan. 8, 1821, Edgefield District, S.C., U.S.died Jan. 2, 1904, Gainesville, Ga.Confederate officer during the American Civil War. A graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y. (1842), he resigned from the U.S. Army when his native state seceded from the Union (December 1860); he was made a brigadier general in the Confederate Army. He fought in the first and second battles of Bull Run, called First and Second Manassas by the Confederates (July 1861; August–September 1862); was a division commander in the Peninsular Campaign (March–July 1862); and at Antietam (September 1862) and Fredericksburg (November–December 1862) commanded what was soon called the I Corps in the Army of Northern Virginia. Promoted to lieutenant general (1862), Longstreet participated in the Battle of Gettysburg (Gettysburg, Battle of) as Gen. Robert E. Lee's (Lee, Robert E.) second in command. His delay in attacking and his slowness in organizing “Pickett's Charge,” his critics argue, were responsible for the Confederate defeat at Gettysburg; others, however, place the blame on Lee, citing his inability to cope with unwilling officers. In September 1863 he directed the attack at Chickamauga that broke the Federal lines. He was severely wounded in the Wilderness Campaign. In November 1864, although with a paralyzed right arm, he resumed command of his corps. He surrendered with Lee at Appomattox.After the war he became unpopular in the South—partly because of his admiration for Pres. Ulysses S. Grant and partly because he joined the Republican Party. He served as U.S. minister to Turkey (1880–81) and commissioner of Pacific railways (1898–1904). His reminiscences, From Manassas to Appomattox, appeared in 1896.
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