Holbein, Hans, the Younger

Holbein, Hans, the Younger
(b. 1497/98, Augsburg, Bishopric of Augsburg
d. 1543, London, Eng.) German painter, draftsman, and designer renowned for the precise rendering of his drawings and the compelling realism of his portraits, particularly those recording the court of Henry VIII of England.

His father, Hans Holbein the Elder, and his uncle Sigmund were renowned for their somewhat conservative examples of late Gothic painting in Germany. Holbein the Younger no doubt studied with his father in Augsburg. He moved to Basel с 1515, entered the painters' corporation in 1519, and was executing important murals by 1521. He also designed book illustrations and woodcuts for publishers, notably a series of more than 40 scenes illustrating the medieval allegory of the "dance of death" (1523–26). His portraits, including that of Desiderius Erasmus (1523), featured rich colour, psychological depth, detailed accessories, and dramatic silhouette. In 1526 he went to England, where he painted portraits of German merchants and court personalities, and by 1536 he had entered the service of Henry VIII. In his last 10 years he produced some 150 life-size and miniature portraits of the royalty and nobility. He also designed fashions for the court and state robes for the king. He was one of the greatest portraitists of all time.

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▪ German painter
born 1497/98, Augsburg, Bishopric of Augsburg [Germany]
died 1543, London, England
 German painter, draftsman, and designer, renowned for the precise rendering of his drawings and the compelling realism of his portraits, particularly those recording the court of King Henry VIII of England.

 Holbein was a member of a family of important artists. His father, Hans Holbein the Elder (Holbein, Hans, The Elder), and his uncle Sigmund were renowned for their somewhat conservative examples of late Gothic painting in Germany. One of Holbein's brothers, Ambrosius, became a painter as well, but he apparently died about 1519 before reaching maturity as an artist. The Holbein brothers no doubt first studied with their father in Augsburg; they both also began independent work about 1515 in Basel, Switzerland. It should be noted that this chronology places Holbein firmly in the second generation of 16th-century German artists. Albrecht Dürer, Matthias Grünewald, and Lucas Cranach the Elder all were born between 1470 and 1480 and were producing their mature masterpieces by the time Holbein was just beginning his career. Holbein is, in fact, the only truly outstanding German artist of his generation.

      Holbein's work in Basel during the decade of 1515–25 was extremely varied, if also sometimes derivative. Trips to northern Italy (c. 1517) and France (1524) certainly affected the development of his religious subjects and portraiture, respectively. Holbein entered the painters' corporation in 1519, married a tanner's widow, and became a burgher of Basel in 1520. By 1521 he was executing important mural decorations in the Great Council Chamber of Basel's town hall.

      Holbein was associated early on with the Basel publishers and their humanist circle of acquaintances. There he found portrait commissions such as that of the humanist scholar Bonifacius Amerbach (1519). In this and other early portraits, Holbein showed himself to be a master of the current German portrait idiom, using robust characterization and accessories, strong gaze, and dramatic silhouette. In Basel, Holbein was also active in designing woodcuts for title pages and book illustrations. The artist's most famous work in this area, a series of 41 scenes illustrating the medieval allegorical concept of the “Dance of Death,” was designed by him and cut by another artist as early as about 1523 to 1526 but was not published until 1538. Its scenes display an immaculate sense of order, packing much information about the lifestyles and habits of Death's victims into a very small format. In portraiture, too, Holbein's minute sense of observation was soon evident. His first major portrait of Desiderius Erasmus (Erasmus, Desiderius) (1523) portrays the Dutch humanist scholar as physically withdrawn from the world, sitting at his desk engaged in his voluminous European correspondence; his hands are as sensitively rendered as his carefully controlled profile.

      Protestantism, which had been introduced into Basel as early as 1522, grew considerably in strength and importance there during the ensuing four years. By 1526 severe iconoclastic riots and strict censorship of the press swept over the city. In the face of what, for the moment at least, amounted to a freezing of the arts, Holbein left Basel late in 1526, with a letter of introduction from Erasmus, to travel by way of the Netherlands to England. Though only about 28 years old, he would achieve remarkable success in England. His most impressive works of this time were executed for the statesman and author Sir Thomas More (More, Sir Thomas) and included a magnificent single portrait of the humanist (1527). In this image, the painter's close observation extends to the tiny stubble of More's beard, the iridescent glow of his velvet sleeves, and the abstract decorative effects of the gold chain that he wears. Holbein also completed a life-size group portrait of More's family; this work is now lost, though its appearance is preserved in copies and in preparatory drawing. This painting was the first example in northern European art of a large group portrait in which the figures are not shown kneeling—the effect of which is to suggest the individuality of the sitters rather than impiety.

      Before Holbein journeyed to England in 1526, he had apparently designed works that were both pro- and anti-Lutheran in character. On returning to Basel in 1528, he was admitted, after some hesitation, to the new—and now official—faith. It would be difficult to interpret this as a very decisive change, for Holbein's most impressive religious works, like his portraits, are brilliant observations of physical reality but seem never to have been inspired by Christian spirituality. This is evident in both the claustrophobic, rotting body of the Dead Christ in the Tomb (1521) and in the beautifully composed Family of Burgomaster Meyer Adoring the Virgin (1526). In this latter painting, Holbein skillfully combined a late medieval German compositional format with precise Flemish realism and a monumental Italian treatment of form. Holbein apparently quite voluntarily gave up almost all religious painting after about 1530.

      In Basel from 1528 to 1532, Holbein continued his important work for the town council. He also painted what is perhaps his only psychologically penetrating portrait, that of his wife and two sons (c. 1528). This picture no doubt conveys some of the unhappiness of that abandoned family. In spite of generous offers from Basel, Holbein left his wife and children in that city for a second time, to spend the last 11 years of his life primarily in England.

 By 1533 Holbein was already painting court personalities, and four years later he officially entered the service of King Henry VIII of England. He died in a London plague epidemic in 1543. It is estimated that during the last 10 years of his life Holbein executed approximately 150 portraits, life-size and miniature, of royalty and nobility alike. These portraits ranged from a magnificent series depicting German merchants who were working in London to a double portrait of the French ambassadors to Henry VIII's court (1533) to portraits of the king himself (1536) and his wives Jane Seymour (1536) and Anne of Cleves (1539). In these and other examples, the artist revealed his fascination with plant, animal, and decorative accessories. Holbein's preliminary drawings of his sitters contain detailed notations concerning jewelry and other costume decorations as well. Sometimes such objects point to specific events or concerns in the sitter's life, or they act as attributes referring to a sitter's occupation or character. The relation between accessories and face is a charged and stimulating one that avoids simple correspondence.

      In an analogous fashion, Holbein's mature portraits present an intriguing play between surface and depth. The sitter's outlines and position within the frame are carefully calculated, while inscriptions applied on the surface in gold leaf lock the sitter's head into place. Juxtaposed with this finely tuned two-dimensional design are illusionistic miracles of velvet, fur, feathers, needlework, and leather. Holbein acted not only as a portraitist but also as a fashion designer for the court. The artist made designs for all the state robes of the king; he left, in addition, more than 250 delicate drawings for everything from buttons and buckles to pageant weapons, horse outfittings, and bookbindings for the royal household. This choice of work indicates Holbein's Mannerist concentration on surface texture and detail of design, a concern that in some ways precluded the incorporation of great psychological depth in his portraits.

      Holbein was one of the greatest portraitists and most exquisite draftsmen of all time. It is the artist's record of the court of King Henry VIII of England, as well as the taste that he virtually imposed upon that court, that was his most remarkable achievement.

      The fact that Holbein's portraits do not reveal the character or spiritual inclinations of his sitters is perfectly paralleled by knowledge of the artist's life. His biography is basically a recounting of disparate facts; about his personality practically nothing is known. Not one note or letter from his own hand survives. Other men's opinions of him are often equally inscrutable. Erasmus, one of Holbein's most renowned sitters, praised and recommended him on one occasion but scorned the artist as opportunistic at another time. Indeed, Henry VIII, who sent Holbein to the Continent to help select a bride by providing a dependable portrait for his scrutiny, was perhaps the only person who had absolute confidence in Holbein.

      The artist's detachment and his refusal to submit to an authority that might inhibit his own creative (but very worldly) powers enabled him to produce paintings whose beauty and brilliance have never been questioned. Had he been a more devout Christian or more subject to the turmoil of his times, his artistic achievement might have been quite different. In recent times the lack of spiritual involvement in his work has been consistently noted, especially inasmuch as the 16th century was a time when few artists managed to remain above the religious conflict sweeping Europe. Thus, the effect of Holbein's art has often been felt to be more artistic and external than expressionistic or emotional. Only in that sense, however, is his achievement finally limited.

Craig S. Harbison

Additional Reading
Exhaustive and still valuable biographies include Alfred Woltmann, Holbein and His Times (1872); and Arthur B. Chamberlain, Hans Holbein the Younger, 2 vol. (1913). K.T. Parker, Drawings of Hans Holbein in the Collection of His Majesty the King at Windsor Castle (1945), is a scholarly account of what is probably the single most important collection of Holbein's mature drawings. Paul Ganz, The Paintings of Hans Holbein (1950), is a detailed monograph. John Rowlands, Holbein: The Paintings of Hans Holbein the Younger (1985), is complete and up-to-date. Roy Strong, Holbein and Henry VIII (1967), examines this important aspect of Holbein's career.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • HOLBEIN, Hans The Younger — (1497/98 1543) Hans Holbein the Younger was born in Augsburg in 1497/98. His subsequent career, however, linked him more closely with Basel in Switzerland and, finally, London. Born some twenty five years after the great Albrecht Dürer,* Holbein… …   Renaissance and Reformation 1500-1620: A Biographical Dictionary

  • Holbein, Hans, The Elder — ▪ German painter born c. 1465, Imperial Free City of Augsburg [Germany] died 1524, Isenheim, Alsace [now in France]       German painter associated with the Augsburg school. He was the senior member of a family of painters that included his… …   Universalium

  • Holbein, Hans, the Elder —  (c. 1460–1524) German painter and father of Hans Holbein the Younger (1497–1543), court painter to Henry VIII of England …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Holbein, Hans — (the Elder, ca. 1460 1534; the Younger, 1497 1543)    German painters, both natives of Augsburg. Little is known about the early life of Hans the Elder. His early work was in the late medieval style prevalent in southern Germany and influenced by …   Historical Dictionary of Renaissance

  • Hans Holbein the Younger — (c. 1497 ndash; between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style. He is best known for his numerous portraits and his woodcut series of the Dance of Death , and is widely… …   Wikipedia

  • Hans Holbein the Younger — Hans Holbein [Hans Holbein] (also called Hans Holbein the Younger) (1497–1543) a German painter who from 1526 lived and worked in England. He was made the official royal painter in 1536 and is best known for his paintings of King ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • the younger — 1 used in comparing the ages of two people who are members of the same family He s the younger of her two brothers. 2 used to refer to the younger of two people (such as a father and son) who have the same name the painters Hans Holbein the Elder …   Useful english dictionary

  • Hans Holbein the Younger — ➡ Holbein * * * …   Universalium

  • Holbein the Younger, Hans — (1497/1498 1543)    German painter from Augsburg, trained by his father Hans Holbein the Elder, who was also a painter. In c. 1514, Holbein the Younger went to Basel where he entered the workshop of Hans Herbster. There he gained a reputation as… …   Dictionary of Renaissance art

  • Holbein the Younger — noun German painter and engraver noted for his portraits; he was commissioned by Henry VIII to provide portraits of the English king s prospective brides (1497 1543) • Syn: ↑Holbein, ↑Hans Holbein • Instance Hypernyms: ↑old master, ↑engraver …   Useful english dictionary

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