Gorbachev, Mikhail (Sergeyevich)

Gorbachev, Mikhail (Sergeyevich)
born March 2, 1931, Privolye, Stavropol region, Russia, U.S.S.R.

Soviet official and last president of the Soviet Union (1990–91).

After earning a law degree from Moscow State University (1955), he rose through the ranks to become a full Politburo member (1980) and general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1985–91). His extraordinary reform policies of glasnost and perestroika were resisted by party bureaucrats; to reduce their power, Gorbachev changed the Soviet constitution in 1988 to allow multicandidate elections and removed the monopoly power of the party in 1990. He cultivated warmer relations with the U.S., and in 1989–90 he supported the democratically elected governments that replaced the communist regimes of eastern Europe. In 1990 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Russia's economic and political problems led to a 1991 coup attempt by hard-liners. In alliance with president Boris Yeltsin, Gorbachev quit the Communist Party, disbanded its Central Committee, and shifted political powers to the Soviet Union's constituent republics. Events outpaced him, and the various republics formed the Commonwealth of Independent States under Yeltsin's leadership. On Dec. 25, 1991, Gorbachev resigned the presidency of the Soviet Union, which ceased to exist that same day.

Mikhail Gorbachev, 1985.

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  • Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich — (1931– )    Born in a village in Stavropol Krai, Mikhail Gorbachev experienced both the privations of Joseph Stalin’s purges and World War II, losing relatives in both. He proved to be an excellent student and was awarded a law degree from Moscow …   Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation

  • Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich — (1931– )    The last president of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev oversaw radical changes in both the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and the country as a whole. He presided over the abandonment of the Brezhnev doctrine, and played …   Historical dictionary of Marxism

  • Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich — (1931– )    While leader of the Communist Party and president of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev presided over the dismantling of the USSR. He had been brought into the Politburo by KGB chief Yuri Andropov and rose to general secretary of the party… …   Historical dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence

  • Gorbachev, Mikhail (Sergeyevich) —  (1931–) General secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1985–1991), president of the Supreme Soviet (1988–1991), president of the USSR (1990–1991) …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Gorbachev, Mikhail — ▪ president of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in full  Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev   born March 2, 1931, Privolye, Stavropol kray, Russia, U.S.S.R.       Soviet official, the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union… …   Universalium

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  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev — noun Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931) • Syn: ↑Gorbachev, ↑Mikhail Gorbachev • Instance Hypernyms: ↑statesman, ↑solon, ↑national leader …   Useful english dictionary

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  • Mikhail — (as used in expressions) Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov Bakhtin Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakunin Mikhail Aleksandrovich Barclay de Tolly Mikhail Bogdanovich Prince Baryshnikov Mikhail Nikolayevich Borodin Mikhail Markovich Mikhail Gruzenberg Bulgakov… …   Universalium

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