Dönitz, Karl

Dönitz, Karl
or Karl Doenitz

born Sept. 16, 1891, Grünau-bei-Berlin, Ger.
died Dec. 22, 1980, Aumühle, W.Ger.

German admiral.

After serving as a submarine officer in World War I, he oversaw the creation of the German U-boat fleet in the 1930s, thus violating the Treaty of Versailles. As the fleet's commander, he conducted the Battle of the Atlantic in World War II, then served as commander in chief of the navy (1943–45). He succeeded Adolf Hitler as Germany's leader in the last few days of the war and executed Germany's surrender to the Allies. Convicted of war crimes at the Nürnberg trials, he served 10 years in prison.

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▪ German naval commander
born September 16, 1891, Grünau-bei-Berlin, Germany
died December 22, 1980, Aumühle, West Germany

      German naval officer and creator of Germany's World War II U-boat fleet who for a few days succeeded Adolf Hitler (Hitler, Adolf) as German head of state.

      During World War I, Dönitz served as a submarine officer in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. In the aftermath of Hitler's accession to power, Dönitz clandestinely supervised—despite the Treaty of Versailles (Versailles, Treaty of)'s absolute ban on German submarine construction—the creation of a new U-boat fleet (U-boat), over which he was subsequently appointed commander (1936). In the early part of the war, Dönitz did as much damage to the Allies as any German commander through his leadership of the U-boats in the Battle of the Atlantic (Atlantic, Battle of the). In the midst of World War II, in January 1943, he was called to replace Admiral Erich Raeder (Raeder, Erich) as commander in chief of the German navy. His loyalty and ability soon won him the confidence of Hitler. On April 20, 1945, shortly before the collapse of the Nazi regime, Hitler appointed Dönitz head of the northern military and civil command. Finally—in his last political testament—Hitler named Dönitz his successor as president of the Reich, minister of war, and supreme commander of the armed forces. Assuming the reins of government on May 2, 1945, Dönitz retained office for only a few days. In 1946 he was sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment by the International Military Tribunal at Nürnberg. (See war crime: The Nürnberg and Tokyo trials (war crime).) He was released from prison in 1956 and retired on a government pension. His memoirs, Zehn Jahre und zwanzig Tage (Memoirs: Ten Years and Twenty Days), were published in 1958.

Additional Reading
The brief sketch by Eugene Davidson, “Karl Doenitz,” in his The Trial of the Germans (1966, reissued 1997), pp. 392–424; and Peter Padfield, Dönitz, the Last Führer: Portrait of a Nazi War Leader (1984, reissued 1993), cover his life and career.

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Universalium. 2010.

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