- Dix, Otto
born Dec. 2, 1891, Untermhaus, Thuringia, Ger.died July 25, 1969, Singen, Baden-Württemberg, W.Ger.German painter and printmaker.He studied at the academies of Düsseldorf and Dresden and experimented with Impressionism and Dada before arriving at Expressionism with a nightmarish personal vision of contemporary social reality, depicting the horrors of war and the depravities of a decadent society with great emotional effect. He was appointed professor at the Dresden Academy in 1926 and elected to the Prussian Academy in 1931. His antimilitary works aroused the wrath of the Nazi regime and he was dismissed from his academic posts in 1933. His later work was marked by religious mysticism. See also Neue Sachlichkeit."Parents of the Artist," oil on canvas by Otto Dix, 1921; in the Öffentliche ...By courtesy of the Offentliche Kunstsammlung and the Emanuel Hoffman-Stiftung, Basel, Switz.; photograph, Hans Hinz
* * *▪ German artistborn Dec. 2, 1891, Untermhaus, Thuringia, Ger.died July 25, 1969, Singen, Baden-Württemberg, W.Ger.German painter and engraver who mixed compassion and Expressionist despair to create works harshly critical of society. He was associated and exhibited with the Neue Sachlichkeit (q.v.) group of painters.Son of a railway worker, Dix was apprenticed to a decorative artist and received training in Dresden. An Impressionist at first, he experimented with various trends in modern art until he arrived at a mordantly individual style, a nightmarish vision of contemporary social reality. While teaching at Düsseldorf (c. 1922–25) he did such representative paintings and drawings as “Pimp and Girls” and “Two Sacrifices of Capitalism” (the sacrifices are a grotesque prostitute and a defaced former soldier). In 1924 he etched 50 plates, entitled “War,” recording its horrors.Appointed a professor at the academy in Dresden (1927), Dix was elected to the Prussian Academy (1931). The Nazi regime, however, incensed at his antimilitary works, cancelled these affiliations and barred him from exhibiting. He was jailed in 1939 on a charge of complicity in a plot on Adolf Hitler's life, but in 1945 he was drafted into the home guard army at the age of 53. He was captured and released by the French.Dix later turned to religious mysticism, as in “Saul and David” (1945) and “Crucifixion” (1946).
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