Billings, John Shaw

Billings, John Shaw
born April 12, 1838, Switzerland county, Ind., U.S.
died March 11, 1913, New York, N.Y.

U.S. surgeon and librarian.

He worked for the U.S. Army 1861–95. He fostered the growth of the surgeon general's library in Washington, D.C., developing what would become the National Library of Medicine, the world's largest medical reference centre. He founded the monthly Index Medicus (1879), still one of the primary U.S. medical bibliographies, and published the first Index Catalogue (1880–95). He also designed Johns Hopkins Hospital and was its medical adviser, ran national vital statistics programs, led the U.S. effort to end yellow fever, and was the first director of the New York Public Library. His organization of U.S. medical institutions was central to modernization of hospital care and maintenance of public health.

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▪ American surgeon and librarian
born April 12, 1838, Switzerland county, Ind., U.S.
died March 11, 1913, New York, N.Y.
 American surgeon and librarian whose organization of U.S. medical institutions played a central role in the modernization of hospital care and the maintenance of public health.

      Billings graduated from Miami University (Oxford, Ohio) in 1857 and from the Medical College of Ohio (Cincinnati) in 1860. During the American Civil War he served as a surgeon in the field and in hospitals until 1864.

      While on the staff of the U.S. surgeon general, Washington, D.C. (1864–95), Billings developed the library later known as the Army Medical Library. Under successive directors it grew into the Surgeon General's Library and ultimately the National Library of Medicine, the world's largest medical reference centre. His attempt to construct a logical classification system for the library resulted in his founding of the Index Medicus (1879), a monthly guide to current medical literature, and publication of the first edition of the Index Catalogue, 16 vol. (1880–95). The first of their kind, both indexes long remained predominant medical references, and the Index Medicus is still regarded as one of the primary medical bibliographies in the United States.

      Billings also designed and served as medical adviser to the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Md., and administered national programs for collecting vital statistics. In the field of public health, he led a successful effort to eradicate yellow fever in the United States. He spent the last 17 years of his life as the first director of the New York Public Library.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Billings, John Shaw — (12 abr. 1838, Switzerland county, Ind., EE.UU.–11 mar. 1913, Nueva York, N.Y.). Cirujano y bibliotecólogo estadounidense. Sirvió en el Ejército de EE.UU. en 1861–95. Promovió el crecimiento de la biblioteca del director de servicios de salud en… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • John Shaw Billings — Infobox Person name=John Shaw Billings width=180px caption=1895 Cecilia Beaux portrait of Billings in the National Library of Medicine. birth date=birth date|1838|4|12 birth place=Allensville, Switzerland county, Indiana death date=death date and …   Wikipedia

  • Shaw — /shaw/, n. 1. Artie (Arthur Arshawsky), born 1910, U.S. clarinetist and bandleader. 2. George Bernard, 1856 1950, Irish dramatist, critic, and novelist: Nobel prize 1925. 3. Henry Wheeler. See Billings, Josh. 4. Irwin, 1913 84, U.S. dramatist and …   Universalium

  • Shaw — Shaw, George Bernard Shaw, Irwin * * * (as used in expressions) Billings, John Shaw Shaw, Anna Howard Shaw, Artie Shaw, George Bernard Shaw, Lemuel Theodore Shaw Wilson …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • shaw — /shaw/, n. 1. Midland U.S. a small wood or thicket. 2. Scot. the stalks and leaves of potatoes, turnips, and other cultivated root plants. [bef. 900; ME shawe, OE sceaga, scaga; akin to SHAG1] * * * (as used in expressions) Billings John Shaw… …   Universalium

  • Billings — /bil ingz/, n. 1. Josh, pen name of Henry Wheeler Shaw. 2. a city in S Montana. 66,798. * * * I City (pop., 2000: 89,847), south central Montana, U.S. Billings was established on the Yellowstone River in 1882 by the Northern Pacific Railway and… …   Universalium

  • Billings — (as used in expressions) Billings, John Shaw Billings, William Hand, (Billings) Learned Kellogg, Frank B(illings) …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • john — /jon/, n. Slang. 1. a toilet or bathroom. 2. (sometimes cap.) a fellow; guy. 3. (sometimes cap.) a prostitute s customer. [generic use of the proper name] * * * I known as John Lackland born Dec. 24, 1167, Oxford, Eng. died Oct. 18/19, 1216,… …   Universalium

  • John — /jon/, n. 1. the apostle John, believed to be the author of the fourth Gospel, three Epistles, and the book of Revelation. 2. See John the Baptist. 3. (John Lackland) 1167? 1216, king of England 1199 1216; signer of the Magna Carta 1215 (son of… …   Universalium

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