/zap"euh tek', zah"peuh-/; Sp. /sah'paw tek"/, n., pl. Zapotecs, (esp. collectively) Zapotec for 1, adj.n.1. a member of an American Indian people living in the Mexican state of Oaxaca.2. the Oto-Manguean language of the Zapotecs, consisting of a number of highly divergent dialects.adj.3. Archaeol. of or pertaining to a Mesoamerican Indian civilization of the Oaxaca region of Mexico c600 B.C. to A.D. 1000, characterized by a bar-and-dot system of enumeration, a calendar of Mayan derivation, ball courts, and underground frescoed tombs.[ < MexSp zapoteco < Nahuatl tzapotecah, pl. of TZAPOTECATL person from Tzapotlan (tzapo(tl) sapodilla + -tecatl suffix of personal nouns, -tlan locative suffix)]
* * *Indian population living in the state of Oaxaca, southern Mexico.Early Zapotec civilization, centred on Monte Albán (near the modern city of Oaxaca), produced the first writing in Mesoamerica and devised the 52-year round calendar later borrowed by other groups. Present-day traditional Zapotec society is largely agricultural, and members practice shifting cultivation. The major crafts include pottery and weaving. The Zapotecs profess Roman Catholicism, but belief in spirits and myths persists. See also Mesoamerican civilization.
* * *▪ peopleMiddle American Indian population living in eastern and southern Oaxaca in southern Mexico.The Zapotec culture varies according to habitat—mountain, valley, or coastal—and according to economy—subsistence, cash crop, or urban; and the language varies from pueblo to pueblo, existing in several mutually unintelligible dialects, better called distinct languages. In general, however, Zapotec society is oriented around central villages or towns and has an agricultural base. Staple crops are corn, beans, and squash; market crops such as coffee, wheat, and sugarcane are grown where the climate allows. Some hunting, fishing, and gathering of wild foods is also practiced. Agriculture is based on slash-and-burn clearing of land, and plow and oxen are used in cultivation.Crafts are still practiced in some areas; these are chiefly pottery, weaving, and palm-fibre weaving. Clothing ranges from traditional (particularly for women) to modern. Traditional dress for women consists of a long skirt, long overtunic (huipil ), and a shawl or wraparound headpiece. Male dress, when not modern, consists of wide, loose trousers; loose shirt, sometimes with pleats; sandals; and straw or wool hat. The religion of the Zapotec is Roman Catholic, but belief in pagan spirits, rituals, and myths persists, to some extent intermingled with Christianity. The compadrazgo, a system of ritual kinship established with godparents, is important.
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