- Venetian glass
ornamental glassware of the type made at Venice, esp. that from the island of Murano.[1835-45]
* * *Variety of glassware made in Venice from the 13th century to the present.In the 15th century efforts were concentrated on the perfection of cristallo (clear glass that approximated rock crystal in appearance). By the 16th century Venetian glassmakers mastered techniques of adding colour and of removing the smoky tint produced by metal in the glass material. These and other secrets were guarded closely, and defecting workers were severely punished. But eventually many Venetian glassmakers did defect, and the techniques became common knowledge in France, Germany, The Netherlands, and England.Ewer made of calcedonio, Venice, early 16th century; in the Museum für Kunsthandwerk, ...By courtesy of the Museum fur Kunsthandwerk, Frankfurt am Main, Ger.; photograph, Foto Marburg-Art Resource/EB Inc.
* * *variety of glasswares (glassware) made in Venice from the 13th century, at the latest, to the present. Although a glassblowers' guild existed in Venice from 1224, the earliest extant specimens that can be dated with certainty are from the mid-15th century. The early history of Venetian glass is therefore largely conjectural. It is known that in 1291 the glasshouses moved across the lagoon to the island of Murano (q.v.), where they have remained. The capture of Constantinople by the crusaders in 1204 and by the Ottomans in 1453 brought an influx of Byzantine glassworkers to Venice. In the 16th century, a period from which a significant number of samples has survived, Venice was no longer a world power; and Venetian glass therefore belongs, along with much of the city's other art, to its period of commercial decline.In the 15th century efforts were concentrated in the perfection of cristallo—i.e., clear glass that approximated rock crystal in appearance. By the 16th century techniques of adding colour to clear glass were mastered as well as those of decolourizing glass from the natural smoky tint of all primitive glass produced by metal in the glass material. Gilding and enamelling were also known. These and other secrets were guarded, and severe penalties were meted out to defecting workmen. Examples from the 16th century include vessels done in millefiori (millefiori glass) technique, an ancient technique in which canes of different coloured glass are bonded together so that a section reveals many small multicoloured flowerlike beads. Other techniques used were calcedonio, a method of simulating marble and other stones; and latticinio, in which rods of opaque, usually white, glass were incorporated in the body of the glass vessel and worked in patterns. Diamond-engraving was made possible in the 16th century by the improvements that had been made in the quality of the glass.The staple products of Venetian glassblowers in the 16th and 17th centuries were drinking glasses. Their peculiarly Venetian characteristic was the elaborate working of the stem with tools such as pincers while the glass was still malleable. Symmetrical “wings” were drawn outward at each side; these were sometimes further elaborated into animals or masks, and sometimes the stem so bristled with projections that the glass can hardly have been used for drinking at all. This type of drinking glass and some other vessels with elaborately flared bowls are usually called bouquetiers (“flower holders”).In spite of the restrictions on the migration of workmen, many Venetian glassmakers did in fact defect, notably to Altare (Altare glass) near Genoa. The techniques so jealously guarded became common knowledge; and from the 16th century various countries, including France, Germany, England, and the Netherlands, produced their own versions of Venetian glass types, façon de Venise (“Venetian fashion”).In the 18th century competition from other countries, especially Bohemia, caused somewhat of a decline in the prestige of Venetian glass, although 17th-century types continued to be reproduced along with mirrors and beads. In the 19th century little was done that was worthwhile apart from the reproduction of older types. In the 20th century the old techniques such as latticinio were employed with continued skill to produce some tasteless glass, though from c. 1961 some good specimens such as plain obelisks and hourglasses were being made. The reproduction of 17th-century types continues.
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