- Tok Pisin
* * *▪ languagepidgin spoken in Papua New Guinea, hence its identification in some earlier works as New Guinea Pidgin. It was also once called Neo-Melanesian, apparently according to the hypothesis that all English-based Melanesian pidgins developed from the same proto-pidgin. It is one of the three official languages of Papua New Guinea, along with English and Hiri Motu.Tok Pisin (literally, “talk pidgin”) is one of the Pacific pidgins that emerged during the second half of the 19th century on copra and sugarcane plantations to which labour was imported from Melanesia, Malaysia, and China. The extensive multilingualism that resulted called for a lingua franca. People who had traveled to Papua New Guinea from plantations in Samoa and Queensland, Austl., resorted to the pidgin that had developed there, as apparently did those from coastal China.The indigenous Melanesian languages share several grammatical features, including a transitive marker on the verb, a dual/plural distinction, an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the first person plural pronoun, relative clauses that start or end with a demonstrative, and a numeral classifying system. These features were incorporated into Tok Pisin. Thus, the inclusive yumitupela ‘we' means, literally, ‘you and me'; in contrast, the exclusive mitupela ‘we' means ‘me and somebody else other than you.' The forms yumitupela and mitupela are dual and denote ‘two,' in contrast to mitripela ‘the three of us (excluding you)' and mipela ‘all of us (excluding you).' An intransitive verb such as kuk ‘cook' is changed to kuk-im before an object noun. Pela, from English fellow, is the general classifier that combines with numerals, as in tupela meri ‘two women.'Nearly the same grammatical distinctions are made in other Melanesian pidgins, such as Bislama (Vanuatu). These features constitute some of the clearest evidence that pidgin systems are not necessarily simpler than those of the languages from which they derived most of their vocabularies and that influence from the languages previously spoken by those who developed the systems (substrates) is incontrovertible in these cases. Such substrate influence is evident also in the sound system of Tok Pisin, where English /f/ has been replaced by /p/ and /š/ by /s/, as in pinis ‘finish.'Tok Pisin is considered an expanded pidgin, as complex as a creole (creole languages), as it is spoken in urban settings as a vernacular rather than as an occasional lingua franca. The nature and theoretical foundation of the distinction between an expanded pidgin and a creole is an issue of current debate among linguists.
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