tautomerism

tautomerism
tautomeric /taw'teuh mer"ik/, adj.
/taw tom"euh riz'euhm/, n. Chem.
the ability of certain organic compounds to react in isomeric structures that differ from each other in the position of a hydrogen atom and a double bond.
[1880-85; TAUTO- + (ISO)MERISM]

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Existence of two or more chemical compounds that have the same chemical composition but different structures (isomers) and that convert easily from one to another.

A major class of tautomeric reactions involves exchange of a hydrogen atom between two other atoms in the same molecule, in both cases forming a covalent bond. For example, in keto-enol tautomerism, the hydrogen atom bonded to the carbon atom in a carbonyl (keto) group (―CH―C=O; see functional group) moves to the oxygen atom, making it an enol group (―C=C―OH). The keto form predominates in many aldehydes and ketones, the enol form in phenols. Sugars (e.g., glucose) exhibit tautomerism between open (chain) forms and closed (ring) forms. See also isomerism.

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      the existence of two or more chemical compounds (chemical compound) that are capable of facile interconversion, in many cases merely exchanging a hydrogen atom between two other atoms, to either of which it forms a covalent bond. Unlike other classes of isomers, tautomeric compounds exist in mobile equilibrium with each other, so that attempts to prepare the separate substances usually result in the formation of a mixture that shows all the chemical and physical properties to be expected on the basis of the structures of the components.

      The most common type of tautomerism is that involving carbonyl, or keto, compounds and unsaturated hydroxyl compounds, or enols; the structural change is the shift of a hydrogen atom between atoms of carbon and oxygen, with the rearrangement of bonds as indicated:

      In many aliphatic aldehydes (aldehyde) and ketones (ketone), such as acetaldehyde, the keto form is the predominant one; in phenols (phenol), the enol form, which is stabilized by the aromatic character of the benzene ring, is the major component.

      An intermediate situation is represented by ethyl acetoacetate, which at room temperature contains about 92.4 percent keto and 7.6 percent enol; at −78 °C (−108 °F), the interconversion of the two forms is slow enough for the individual substances to be isolated. The enol form is stabilized by hydrogen bonding between the hydrogen of the −OH (hydroxyl) group and the oxygen of the C=O (carbonyl (carbonyl group)) group.

      In addition to keto-enol tautomerism, several other types are well known, including those of aliphatic nitro compounds and those involving ring and chain structures, especially of molecules (molecule) of sugars (sugar).

William H. Brown
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tautomerism — Tau*tom er*ism, n. [Gr. ?; ?, for ? ? the same + ? part.] (Chem.) The condition, quality, or relation of metameric substances, or their respective derivatives, which are more or less interchangeable, according as one form or the other is the more …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • tautomerism — tautomerism. См. таутомерия. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • tautomerism — [tô täm′ər iz΄əm] n. [< TAUTO + Gr meros, a part + ISM] Chem. the property of some substances of being in a condition of equilibrium between two isomeric forms and of reacting readily to form either tautomeric [tô΄tə mer′ik] adj …   English World dictionary

  • tautomerism — Form of isomerism in which there are two or more arrangements usually of hydrogens bonded to oxygen. Keto enol tautomerism is one common example. The balance between two coexisting tautomers may shift with time or as a result of changes in… …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • tautomerism — tautomerija statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Reiškinys, kai vienas tautomeras lengvai virsta kitu ir tarp jų nusistovi pusiausvyra. atitikmenys: angl. desmotropism; dynamic isomerism; tautomerism rus. десмотропия; динамическая изомерия;… …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • tautomerism — tȯˈtäməˌrizəm noun ( s) Etymology: taut + merism : the phenomenon shown by a compound of behaving in chemical reactions as though the atoms in its molecule were arranged in more than one way expressible by different structural formulas, the two… …   Useful english dictionary

  • tautomerism — noun Date: circa 1890 isomerism in which the isomers change into one another with great ease so that they ordinarily exist together in equilibrium …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • tautomerism — noun A form of isomerism in which a dynamic equilibrium between multiple isomers exists, such as that between an enol and a ketone. See Also: tautomer …   Wiktionary

  • tautomerism — A phenomenon in which a chemical compound exists in two forms of different structure (isomers) in equilibrium, the two forms differing, usually, in the position of a hydrogen atom; e.g., keto enol t., R–CH2–C(O)–R′ ⇄ R–CH=C(OH)–R′. [G. tautos,… …   Medical dictionary

  • tautomerism — n. existence of one substance in various forms (Chemistry) …   English contemporary dictionary

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