/stav roh"peuhl/; Russ. /stah"vrddeuh peuhl/, n.
1. a territory of the Russian Federation in Europe, N of the Caucasus. 2,306,000; 29,600 sq. mi. (76,960 sq. km).
2. the capital of this territory. 306,000.
3. former name of Tolyatti.

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▪ Stavropol region, Russia
      city and administrative centre of Stavropol kray (region), southwestern Russia, situated on the Stavropol Upland near the source of the Grachovka River. It was founded in 1777 as a fortress. Although it was at first a major route and administrative centre, the city was later bypassed by the Rostov–Baku railway, and its original functions declined. Between 1935 and 1943 the city was known as Voroshilovsk. Today Stavropol's main importance is in processing farm produce from its fertile hinterland, especially flour milling, wine making, and meat-packing; machine building and the chemical and clothing industries are also important. An attractive city with tree-lined streets laid out on a grid pattern, Stavropol has medical, agricultural, linguistic, and teacher-training institutes and a research institute for sheep and goat husbandry. Pop. (1991 est.) 328,500.

      kray (region), southwestern Russia, on the northern flank of the Greater Caucasus. The territory stretches from the crestline, which reaches 13,274 feet (4,046 m) in Mount Dombay-Ulgen, across the lower parallel ranges, which are broken by deep river gorges, and then across the extensive foreland known as the Stavropol Upland, to the low plains of the Manych Depression and the Caspian Depression. The mountain area, which forms the republic of Karachay-Cherkessia within the kray, is densely forested on the lower slopes with deciduous trees, giving way higher up to conifers, above which are alpine meadows and bare rock and ice. The foreland and lowlands are mostly fertile steppe soils, now largely under cultivation; in the drier east (the Nogay Steppe), semidesert conditions prevail, with sage vegetation predominating.

      Agriculture in the territory is highly developed and is dominated by wheat, corn (maize), fodder, and industrial crops, chiefly sunflowers, flax, mustard, castor beans, and potatoes. Large numbers of cattle and sheep are kept, mainly based on transhumance between the high mountain pastures in summer and the dry Nogay Steppe in winter. Most of Stavropol's industries are based on the processing of farm produce, but there are large deposits of natural gas, first discovered in 1910. The gas is piped as far as Moscow and also is used locally in the chemical industries of Nevinnomyssk. In the Caucasus foothills are many mineral springs and a number of spa and resort towns. Area excluding Karachay-Cherkessia, 25,700 square miles (66,500 square km). Pop. (1995 est.) 2,650,000.

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Universalium. 2010.

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