—staphylococcal /staf'euh leuh kok"euhl/, staphylococcic /staf'euh leuh kok"sik/, adj./staf'euh leuh kok"euhs/, n., pl. staphylococci /-kok"suy/. Bacteriol.any of several spherical bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus, occurring in pairs, tetrads, and irregular clusters, certain species of which, as S. aureus, can be pathogenic for humans.[1885-90; < NL; see STAPHYLO-, COCCUS]
* * *Any of the spherical bacteria that make up the genus Staphylococcus.The best-known species are present in great numbers on the mucous membranes and skin of all humans and other warm-blooded animals. The cells characteristically group together in grapelike clusters. Staphylococci are gram-positive (see gram stain) and stationary and do not require oxygen. Of significance to humans is the species S. aureus, an important agent of wound infections, boils, and other human skin infections, and one of the most common causes of food poisoning. It also causes udder inflammation in domestic animals and breast infections in women. The largest cause of hospital infections (accounting for almost 15%), "staph" is often difficult to treat because of its increasing resistance to antibiotics.
* * *▪ bacteria genusgroup of spherical bacteria, the best known species of which are universally present in great numbers on the mucous membranes and skin of humans and other warm-blooded animals. The term staphylococcus, generally used for all the species, refers to the cells' habit of aggregating in grapelike clusters. Staphylococci are microbiologically characterized as gram-positive (in young cultures), non-spore-forming, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes (not requiring oxygen).Of significance to humans are various strains of the species S. aureus and S. epidermis. While S. epidermis is a mild pathogen, opportunistic only in people with lowered resistance, strains of S. aureus are major agents of wound infections, boils, and other human skin infections and are one of the most common causes of food poisoning. S. aureus also causes meningitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and mastitis, an infection of the breast in women or of the udder in domestic animals. In addition, local staphylococcal infections can lead to toxic shock syndrome, a disease associated with the liberation of a toxin into the bloodstream from the site of infection.One strain that is of great concern to humans is S. aureus (MRSA) ( MRSA), which is characterized by the presence of a single mutation that renders it resistant to methicillin, a semisynthetic penicillin used to treat staphylococcus infections that are resistant to mold-derived penicillin. This strain of S. aureus was first isolated in the early 1960s, shortly after methicillin came into wide use as an antibiotic. Today methicillin is no longer used, but the strain of MRSA to which it gave rise is commonly found on the skin, in the nose, or in the blood or urine of humans. Some 50 million people worldwide are believed to carry MRSA, which is readily passed by skin contact but rarely causes infection in healthy individuals. However, very young children and elderly or ill patients in hospitals and nursing homes are particularly susceptible to MRSA infection, which is difficult to treat because of its resistance to most antibiotics. The treatment (therapeutics) of MRSA infections with vancomycin, an antibiotic often considered as a last line of defense against MRSA, has led to the emergence of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), against which few agents are effective. In 2005 in the United States, deaths from MRSA (approximately 18,000) surpassed deaths from HIV/AIDS (approximately 17,000), underscoring the need for improved surveillance to prevent and control the spread of this potentially lethal organism.
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