rule of thumb.
* * *also called decayany of several plant diseases, caused by any of hundreds of species of soil-borne bacteria and fungi. They are characterized by plant decomposition and putrefaction. The decay may be hard, dry, spongy, watery, mushy, or slimy and may affect any plant part.Seed rot results in row skips and a poor, irregular stand; it is especially troublesome in cold, wet, heavy soils.Root rot is caused by numerous fungi, especially Armillaria mellea, Clitocybe tabescens, and many species of Pythium, Phytophthora, Aphanomyces, and Fusarium. Plants lose vigour, become stunted and yellow, and may wilt or die back and drop some leaves. They do not respond to fertilizer and water. Trees so affected die gradually; roots decay and may be covered with mold or black stringlike strands called rhizomorphs (Armillaria, Clitocybe). Root rot can be avoided by growing disease-free plants and resistant varieties in well-drained, well-prepared soil with a high content of organic matter; rotating annuals and biennials; avoiding overcrowding and root or crown injury; maintaining vigour by proper fertilization, watering, pruning, and cultivation; and controlling rodents, insects, nematodes, and weeds. Seedbed drenches of fungicides are often beneficial for limited areas of flowers, shrubs, and trees. Soil for use in seedbeds and in pots can be sterilized by heating or by chemical treatment.Wood rot destroys more timber each year than fire does: some 20,000,000,000 board feet in the United States alone. It is caused by hundreds of fungi, including species of Daedalea, Fomes, Lenzites, Polyporus, Poria, and Stereum. Affected wood is often discoloured or stained, lightweight, soft, crumbly, or powdery. Damage usually occurs slowly, often over a period of many years. Infection occurs almost entirely through wounds. Hoof- to shelf-shaped fruiting bodies (conks) develop along the trunk and branches; or mushrooms may form at the trunk base or at the sites of wounds. A fruiting body or mushroom cluster indicates extensive decay. Wood rot can be avoided by removing dead and dying branches, making pruning cuts flush with the stems (leaving no stubs as possible entry for fungi), and wrapping young trees to protect against tree borers that can carry the causal fungi. Tree wound dressings are of doubtful value in preventing rots.
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